String Theory Cosmology: Review

A big complicating factor in understanding string cosmology is understanding string theories. String theories and M theory appear to be limiting cases of some bigger, more fundamental theory. Until that’s sorted out, anything we think we know today is potentially up for grabs.
   That being said, there are some basic issues in string theory cosmology:

1. Can string theory make any cosmological predictions relevant to Big Bang physics?
2. What happens to the extra dimensions?
3. Is there Inflation in string theory?

Low energy string cosmology

   The baryonic matter that makes up the nuclei of atoms seems to provide only a small fraction of the total mass in the Universe.

Measured values of Omega

Most of the mass in our Universe appears to occur in the form of dark matter, which is most likely made up of some exotic particle or particles that interact very weakly and have a very large mass.
   String theories require supersymmetry for quantum consistency, and supersymmetric theories require bosons and fermions to come in pairs, because the supercharge operator turns bosons into fermions and vice versa.

Supersymmetry charge

   So supersymmetric theories are good places to look for exotic matter in the form of fermionic superpartners of bosonic particles that carry forces.
   In the Standard Model of particle physics, recall there is a spontaneously broken symmetry that gives mass to the weak interaction gauge bosons through the Higgs potential. The Standard model contains three massive gauge bosons, two charged and one neutral, and a massive neutral Higgs field.
   The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is a supersymmetric version of the Standard Model. The weak interaction gauge bosons and Higgs fields in the MSSM have fermionic superpartners, and the neutral superpartners are called neutralinos. A neutralino would make a good candidate for for dark matter, because it couples with weak interaction strength but should have a high mass.
    But this is true only as long as it is stable. A neutralino would be stable if there were nothing of lower mass that it could decay into, i.e. it is the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), and if something called R-parity is conserved.
   The experimental limits on supersymmetric particle masses say that any neutralino LSP out there must have a mass greater than 40 GeV. A neutralino of that mass could give

Omega_LSP

and that’s already in the right ballpark for the observed amount of dark matter out there.
   But the success of such a model depends on whether supersymmetry can be broken at the right scale. Supersymmetry breaking has other cosmological implications, such as a cosmological constant with a value that can run away from the very small, but nonzero, value that has recently been observed in the redshifts of supernovae. So this is far from a settled problem.

Cosmology and string duality

   The standard Big Bang cosmology assumes that the Universe began expanding from a state that was very hot, very small, and very highly curved. The Big Bang model agrees so well with observation that it is therefore commonly assumed that any cosmological era that preceded the Big Bang must have involved a Universe that was even hotter and even smaller and more highly curved, until we reach the Planck scale and the Planck temperature, where our ability to describe geometry runs into fundamental quantum limits where gravity is strongly coupled and can no longer be treated as a fixed classical substrate in which particles or strings interact.
   But string theory complicates such a naive monotonic extrapolation backwards through time, temperature and curvature, because in string theory there are symmetries that can obscure the difference between large and small distance, large and small curvature, and large and small coupling strength.
    One such symmetry is T-duality. Recall that with strings quantized in a flat spacetime background, if one dimension is wrapped into a circle of radius R, by identifying xi with xi + 2pR, there are two new kinds of modes added to the spectrum: modes with quantized momentum going around the circle with quantum number n, and modes that wrap around the circle with winding number w. The total mass squared of the string then depends on these two numbers

   This formula has a symmetry under the exchange

T duality

This is T-duality. The self dual point is where

Self dual point

At the self-dual point, extra massless fields enter the dynamics that reflect an enhanced group of symmetries.
   T-duality has been applied to pre-Big Bang cosmology to build a model that is probably wrong, but interesting to study nonetheless.
    A cosmological solution to the vacuum Einstein equations that is homogeneous but not isotropic is the Kasner metric, which can be written as

A homogeneous, nonisotropic cosmology

The set of exponents {pi} as constrained above have the properties that they are all smaller than one, and they can’t all have the same sign. If n of the exponents are positive so that the Universe expands as time increases in those n directions, then the remaining D-n exponents are negative, and the Universe shrinks in those directions as time increases.
   String theory has a scalar field called the dilaton, and the Kasner metric in this case extends to

Homogeneous nonisotropic metric with dilation

Again, directions with pi positive expand as time increases, and those with pi negative contract as time increases. Notice that in this case, isotropic solutions are allowed where pi = ± D-1/2.
   For every solution with some set of exponents and dilaton {pi, f(t)}, there is a dual solution with {pi’,f’(t)} given by

Pre-Big Bang  duality

So expanding solutions and contracting solutions are dual to one another.
   This duality symmetry has led to an interesting proposal for pre-Big Bang cosmology where the stringy Universe starts out flat, cold and very large instead of curved, hot and very small. This early Universe is unstable and starts to collapse and contract until it reaches the self dual point, where it heats up and starts to expand to give the expanding Universe we observe today.
   One advantage to this model is that it incorporates the very stringy behavior of T duality and the self dual point, so it is a very inherently stringy cosmology. Unfortunately, the model has failings in both the technical and observational categories, so it’s no longer considered a viable model for string cosmology

A big complicating factor in understanding string cosmology is understanding string theories. String theories and M theory appear to be limiting cases of some bigger, more fundamental theory. Until that’s sorted out, anything we think we know today is potentially up for grabs.
   That being said, there are some basic issues in string theory cosmology:

1. Can string theory make any cosmological predictions relevant to Big Bang physics?
2. What happens to the extra dimensions?
3. Is there Inflation in string theory?

Low energy string cosmology

   The baryonic matter that makes up the nuclei of atoms seems to provide only a small fraction of the total mass in the Universe.

Measured values of Omega

Most of the mass in our Universe appears to occur in the form of dark matter, which is most likely made up of some exotic particle or particles that interact very weakly and have a very large mass.
   String theories require supersymmetry for quantum consistency, and supersymmetric theories require bosons and fermions to come in pairs, because the supercharge operator turns bosons into fermions and vice versa.

Supersymmetry charge

   So supersymmetric theories are good places to look for exotic matter in the form of fermionic superpartners of bosonic particles that carry forces.
   In the Standard Model of particle physics, recall there is a spontaneously broken symmetry that gives mass to the weak interaction gauge bosons through the Higgs potential. The Standard model contains three massive gauge bosons, two charged and one neutral, and a massive neutral Higgs field.
   The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is a supersymmetric version of the Standard Model. The weak interaction gauge bosons and Higgs fields in the MSSM have fermionic superpartners, and the neutral superpartners are called neutralinos. A neutralino would make a good candidate for for dark matter, because it couples with weak interaction strength but should have a high mass.
    But this is true only as long as it is stable. A neutralino would be stable if there were nothing of lower mass that it could decay into, i.e. it is the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), and if something called R-parity is conserved.
   The experimental limits on supersymmetric particle masses say that any neutralino LSP out there must have a mass greater than 40 GeV. A neutralino of that mass could give

Omega_LSP

and that’s already in the right ballpark for the observed amount of dark matter out there.
   But the success of such a model depends on whether supersymmetry can be broken at the right scale. Supersymmetry breaking has other cosmological implications, such as a cosmological constant with a value that can run away from the very small, but nonzero, value that has recently been observed in the redshifts of supernovae. So this is far from a settled problem.

Cosmology and string duality

   The standard Big Bang cosmology assumes that the Universe began expanding from a state that was very hot, very small, and very highly curved. The Big Bang model agrees so well with observation that it is therefore commonly assumed that any cosmological era that preceded the Big Bang must have involved a Universe that was even hotter and even smaller and more highly curved, until we reach the Planck scale and the Planck temperature, where our ability to describe geometry runs into fundamental quantum limits where gravity is strongly coupled and can no longer be treated as a fixed classical substrate in which particles or strings interact.
   But string theory complicates such a naive monotonic extrapolation backwards through time, temperature and curvature, because in string theory there are symmetries that can obscure the difference between large and small distance, large and small curvature, and large and small coupling strength.
    One such symmetry is T-duality. Recall that with strings quantized in a flat spacetime background, if one dimension is wrapped into a circle of radius R, by identifying xi with xi + 2pR, there are two new kinds of modes added to the spectrum: modes with quantized momentum going around the circle with quantum number n, and modes that wrap around the circle with winding number w. The total mass squared of the string then depends on these two numbers

   This formula has a symmetry under the exchange

T duality

This is T-duality. The self dual point is where

Self dual point

At the self-dual point, extra massless fields enter the dynamics that reflect an enhanced group of symmetries.
   T-duality has been applied to pre-Big Bang cosmology to build a model that is probably wrong, but interesting to study nonetheless.
    A cosmological solution to the vacuum Einstein equations that is homogeneous but not isotropic is the Kasner metric, which can be written as

A homogeneous, nonisotropic cosmology

The set of exponents {pi} as constrained above have the properties that they are all smaller than one, and they can’t all have the same sign. If n of the exponents are positive so that the Universe expands as time increases in those n directions, then the remaining D-n exponents are negative, and the Universe shrinks in those directions as time increases.
   String theory has a scalar field called the dilaton, and the Kasner metric in this case extends to

Homogeneous nonisotropic metric with dilation

Again, directions with pi positive expand as time increases, and those with pi negative contract as time increases. Notice that in this case, isotropic solutions are allowed where pi = ± D-1/2.
   For every solution with some set of exponents and dilaton {pi, f(t)}, there is a dual solution with {pi’,f‘(t)} given by

Pre-Big Bang  duality

So expanding solutions and contracting solutions are dual to one another.
   This duality symmetry has led to an interesting proposal for pre-Big Bang cosmology where the stringy Universe starts out flat, cold and very large instead of curved, hot and very small. This early Universe is unstable and starts to collapse and contract until it reaches the self dual point, where it heats up and starts to expand to give the expanding Universe we observe today.
   One advantage to this model is that it incorporates the very stringy behavior of T duality and the self dual point, so it is a very inherently stringy cosmology. Unfortunately, the model has failings in both the technical and observational categories, so it’s no longer considered a viable model for string cosmology.

Inflation vs. the giant brane collision

   Inflation is still the preferred cosmological model of astrophysicists. But efforts to derive a suitable inflationary potential from the low energy limit of superstring theory have met with many obstacles. The dilaton field would seem to be an obvious candidate for the inflaton, but in perturbative low energy string theory the dilaton has no potential, the field is massless and couples to gravity solely through its kinetic energy, which is positive and would slow down the expansion of the Universe rather than speed it up.
   String theories contain other scalar field called moduli, but the moduli are also massless in perturbative string theory, and their nonperturbative potentials are still unknown. Any nonperturbative physics that fixes stable minima for these fields controls the supersymmetry breaking scale, the sizes of compactified dimensions, the value of the cosmological constant, and the dynamics of the inflaton field, and that’s why deriving a string theory inflationary model has been such a challenge.
   But inflationary models suffer from a conceptual inadequacy in that they are constructed using a combination of relativistic quantum field theory and classic general relativity. String theory is a theory of quantum gravity. And so string theory ought to be able to describe cosmology on a more fundamental level than inflationary models are capable of describing.
   The discovery of extended fundamental structures in string theory called D-branes has brought forth some startling new ideas for the structure of spacetime. The first such model by Horava and Witten started with M-theory in eleven spacetime dimensions, compactified on a 6-dimensional Calabi-Yau space, leaving four space dimensions and time. The four space dimensions are bounded by two three-dimensional surfaces, or branes, separated by some distance R between the three-branes in the fourth direction. One of those three-branes, called the visible brane, can be seen as the three-dimensional world on which we live. The other three-dimensional brane is called the hidden brane, and we never see it. The volume V of the Calabi-Yau space varies from the visible brane to the hidden brane, and each brane has a different set of E8 gauge supermultiplets living on it, with the gauge couplings of fields living on the visible and hidden branes related by

Horava-Witten couplings

This model is an effective five-dimensional theory, because the value of R is large compared to the size of the Calabi-Yau space.
   This Horava-Witten world is not a cosmological model, but this picture has been applied to cosmology with interesting and controversial results. The latest version of braneworld cosmology is the giant brane collision model, also known as the Ekpyrotic Universe, or the Big Splat.
   The Ekpyrotic Universe starts out as a cold, flat, static five-dimensional spacetime that is close to being a supersymmetric BPS state, meaning a state invariant under some special subalgebra of the supersymmetry algebra. The four space dimensions of the bulk are bounded by two three-dimensional walls or three-branes, and one of those three-branes makes up the space that we live on. 
   But how does the Universe evolve to give the Big Bang cosmology for which there is so much observational evidence? The Ekpyrotic theory postulates that there is a third three-brane loose between the two bounding branes of the four dimensional bulk world, and when this brane collides with the brane on which we live, the energy from the collision heats up our brane and the Big Bang occurs in our visible Universe as described elsewhere in this site.
   This proposal is quite new, and it remains to be seen whether it will survive careful scrutiny.

The problem with acceleration

   There is a problem with an accelerating Universe that is fundamentally challenging to string theory, and even to traditional particle theory. In eternal inflation models and most quintessence models, the expansion of the Universe accelerates indefinitely. This eternal acceleration leads to some contradictions in the mathematical assumptions made about spacetime in the fundamental formulations of quantum field theories and string theories.
   According to the Einstein equation, for the usual case of a four-dimensional spacetime where space is homogeneous and isotropic, the acceleration of the scale factor depends on the energy density and the pressure of the “stuff” in the Universe as

Acceleration of scale factor

The equation of state for the “stuff” in the Universe, combined with the Einstein equation, tells us that

Equation of state and scale factor

   The boundary of the region beyond which an observer can never see is called that observer’s event horizon. In cosmology, the event horizon is like the particle horizon, except that it is in the future and not in the past. In the class of spacetimes we’ve been looking at, the amount of the future that an observer at some time t0 would be able to see were she or he to live forever is given by

Cosmological future event horizon

This tells us that an accelerating Universe will have a future event horizon, because

Condition for positive acceleration

   From the point of view of human philosophy or the internal consistency of Einstein’s theory of relativity, there is no problem with a cosmological event horizon. So what if we can’t ever see some parts of the Universe, even if we were to live forever?
   But a cosmological event horizon is a major technical problem in high energy physics, because of the definition of relativistic quantum theory in terms of the collection of scattering amplitudes called the S Matrix. One of the fundamental assumptions of quantum relativistic theories of particles and strings is that when incoming and outgoing states are infinitely separated in time, they behave as free noninteracting states.
   The presence of an event horizon implies a finite Hawking temperature and the conditions for defining the S Matrix cannot be fulfilled. This lack of an S Matrix is a formal mathematical problem not only in string theory but also in particle theories.

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About bruceleeeowe
An engineering student and independent researcher. I'm researching and studying quantum physics(field theories). Also searching for alien life.

13 Responses to String Theory Cosmology: Review

  1. Nelson says:

    Well done. Excellent post, Bruceleeeowe. I’ve much to say but sharing with you in short. Although there are much evidences to support the theory big bang and inflationary universe. But still astrophysicists are facing problems with singularity physics of black hole where all physics fails. Yet there are problems that can’t be explained better them of too. Is that correct?

  2. bruceleeeowe says:

    Correct… Nelson. I was thinking about this too.

  3. Mark Louis says:

    I’m not interested in mathematics. I’ve always struggled with math. Anyway nice article

  4. Reyno says:

    I don’t try to think what is correct. I believe in what my teachers tought me in school days but looking for something new. I liked yours math. Good math.

  5. TSwain says:

    Hey, I read a lot of blogs on a daily basis and for the most part, people lack substance but, I just wanted to make a quick comment to say GREAT blog!…..I”ll be checking in on a regularly now….Keep up the good work! :)

  6. LarryLove says:

    Hey very nice blog!!….I’m an instant fan, I have bookmarked you and I’ll be checking back on a regular….See ya :)

  7. Andrew says:

    This has been on my mind for some time….. and I agree with you to some degree.
    frokostordning

  8. William H. Depperman says:

    Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics

    The Capitalist Dictatorship Falsifies Basic Science!
    Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis Overbye, Nicholas
    Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!

    Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einstein’s Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as “the new science” in exhaustive falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, and even the so-called “History Channel” In addition, the above-mentioned so-called “cosmologists” publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles to try to popularize this fiction and pass it off as good coin. Not to mention the new textbooks! The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence agency,” a vast army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and every academic discipline and includes even so-called “comedians” working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population!

    There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government, which have threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and have even tried to pump up support for a Mars mission! (?) There is no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic motor used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Moon and Mars trips obviously make no sense except to keep NASA and its suppliers in business and one more pretext to divert money from social spending and to boost U.S. patriotism. Under public pressure the Obama Regime has recently supposedly cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and states that it will privatize the role of NASA going even further than Bush in privatization schemes for the U.S. government. (See below.) The widespread academic opposition to these wide-scale falsifications of science and money wasting ventures is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorship’s lies.

    The Capitalist Dictatorship’s Attempt to Falsify the
    Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in “god”

    The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious “god.” (The statecraft of capitalism’s alliance with religion and belief in “god” and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time critical mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe.

    Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According
    To Einstein’s Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and
    Solve the Equation for Mass: M=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called “Missing Mass”!

    The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed “missing mass.” (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science (November 21, 2008) which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called “missing mass” would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einstein’s formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of and Historical Materialism and the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony “cosmological” theory! See further below!

    Black Holes Have Mass and a Size, Which
    Can Be Calculated, and Rotate on an Axis!

    In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to “a single point less than the size of a single molecule,” a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called “string theorists” (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “singularity.” All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently.

    Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral arms—because of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the elliptical galaxy, which is in the process of becoming a spiral galaxy, first flattens due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in its center. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses, while a Supermassive Black Hole in the constellation Virgo 50 million light years distant contains a Supermassive Black Hole with the mass of 3 billion solar masses.

    The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centripetal force caused by its rapid rotation.

    Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars’ orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy’s inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central black hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole.

    Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract
    Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process
    Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch!

    In the interest of accuracy and it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole.

    According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid.

    Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts
    The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years!

    The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes.

    All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble’s law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent “estimates” of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence community”) are obviously totally false! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction.

    As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called “Naked Science” show that “while black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!” The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are “expelling” matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of “observations” to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch!

    One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined “intelligence community” propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha “blobs,” glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: “Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies” by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a “scientist” or “professor” and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorship’s Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship now resorts to the come on of “naked science” in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting truthful “Naked Science” reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in.

    In response to the heavy push on the so-called “History Channel,” etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri Lemaître, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. Lemaître studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. Lemaître, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. Lemaître called it “the hypothesis of Primeval Atom” and also referred to it as “the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation,” with the word “creation” obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing Lemaître. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “singularity.” As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to E=M/c2, Einstein’s formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: “Big Bang Theory” first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC on March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe.

    It is a fact that Lemaître applied Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as Lemaître is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called “History Channel.” Lemaître also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubble’s Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. Lemaître has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for “a creator” and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although Lemaître had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing Lemaître in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of “creation.” The so-called “History Channel” focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obama’s new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below.

    The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called “standard candles,” while Wendy Freedman’s NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedman’s method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) “the universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage team’s most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +or–1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: “The expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,” by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y.

    This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their “calculations” and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.’s method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as “correction of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,” etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called “dark energy,” Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant,” (“My greatest blunder!” See below), which is declared to be “the opposite of gravity” and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is proffered as “the reason” the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now say that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably “speeded up,” a “finding” which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve political-religious-propagandistic objectives. See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly!

    Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandage’s previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage is now 82 years old and although he is 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandages’s team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweek the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above.

    The U.S. so-called “intelligence community” organized the so-called “Key Project” in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the “Key Project.” This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandage’s studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be “between 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.” This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the “Key Project.” See further below.

    Freedman’s initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent “estimations.” All of Freedman’s estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye!

    Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: “The Big Bang Never Happened” (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking “energy independence” and “clean energy.”).

    NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent “theory of the
    Big Rip” In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and
    The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet!

    NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel March 2009 that 1.) “dark matter” forms a supposed “superstructure” of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious “dark energy” will eventually “become so strong” that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, and falsely claiming that the entire Universe will supposedly “fly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to time” in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as “the Big Rip.” This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered.

    The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and totally bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in dark energy and dark matter, for example) to actually believe them—their overall objective in the first place as explained here, so do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/“cosmologists” keep up a relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals to try to prove the existence of “dark matter,” for example, which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the “superstructure of the universe” but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as “two tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years…” New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false “finding” which the article admits is “no proof” but “tantalizing” (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no “dark matter.” And it can be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of “dark matter” and “dark energy” as well as the fictitious “Higgs Boson” in order to try to “prove” the existence of god! The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies.

    Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony “cosmologists” have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are “not immutable” and are in a process of “constant evolution” supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwin’s “The Evolution of Species.” The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has “temporary relevance” giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in “reality.” (See: “Beyond Einstein,” Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: “learning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.” See comprehensive section on Einstein below.

    The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: “physicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.” This carefully contrived statement implies that because “multiverses,” etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed of as “science.” They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” led by characters such as Michio Kaku. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku & Co. are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the title of a 1987 book by “intelligence community” fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku first concocted so-called “String Theory” in the effort to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious so-called “Beyond Einstein science,” behind a phony glib slick presentation, is equally at home spinning science fiction e.g. “parallel universes, time warps and the tenth dimension” as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant natural law and confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge.

    There is no such thing as “Dark Energy” and the Universe has not suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds, as supposed “proof of its existence.” Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies does indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey virtually at the beginning of the Universe, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of that galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions and where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not!

    The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT flat! It is closed. In reality there are no “multiple universes,” which “pop out of Black Holes” or by any other explanation. The reason for this is that although in a Black Hole mass is infinite (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch. See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. See above.

    There is also no “time travel” either in a practical sense despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einstein’s Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einstein’s General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no “worm holes.” For worm holes to exist just within the known Universe would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which do not actually exist. There are no “strings.” “String theory” is a mathematical attempt to try to refute and supplant, not explain, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory.

    Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe
    Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity!
    This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe
    And “String Theory!” The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also
    Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!”

    The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the most recent paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch. Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the “Singularity,” that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2.) (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127) On the other hand such tidbit reports as “Excess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,” (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as “dark matter.”

    The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the “possibility.” How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.)

    This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed “missing matter” necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces — electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation — all had the same strength. After that point the energy level decreased and gravity separated from the other 3 fundamental forces and with the condensation of matter into the elementary particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons) formed the so-called Standard Model of today’s Universe. These facts, while available, are de-emphasized by the capitalist dictatorship propaganda machine with the false claim that “no one—not even Einstein—has been able formulate the Grand Unified Theory,” in order to try to open the door to fraudulent “string theory.” The 1998 report that neutrinos have mass was blipped in the media and then neutrino research was de-funded worldwide and thereafter suppressed for a period of time. Wonder why?? It is time to employ some inductive reasoning, which is in fact scientific reasoning. (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 1013 times as great as that of the weak nuclear force, and about 1038 times that of gravitation.)

    The Big Crunch will arrive on schedule and another Universe will begin! Einstein once said that a theory of the Universe should be both simple and elegant. He would definitely be rolling over in his grave if he were made aware of today’s totally contrived “science” especially the attempt by these fakers to re-introduce his fudge factor, the so-called “cosmological constant,” which Einstein invented/fabricated to allow for a static solution to his equations and a static Universe, which he was later forced to admit was false after the discovery of the Redshift by Edwin Hubble, which occurs when light or any type of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies shifts toward longer wavelengths, the less energetic part of the spectrum, due to the Doppler effect, thus indicating that those galaxies are moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way (and vice versa) and that the Universe is (still) expanding (while it is also simultaneously contracting on another level as explained). (The Redshift in light from receding galaxies is proportional to their distance from Earth. That is Hubble’s Law.)

    The false assumption of a static Universe had prevented Einstein from predicting that the Universe was expanding. Einstein admitted that the “cosmological constant” was his “biggest blunder.” (In December 1930 Einstein went to Cal Tech on a visiting professorship where he worked with Edwin Hubble and reportedly also apologized for his error.) In 1998 the U.S. so-called “intelligence community,” directed their fleet of fake “cosmologists” and some opportunist and duped astrophysicists to try to pass off Einstein’s fraudulent cosmological constant as the entirely fictitious and admittedly totally unexplained so-called “dark energy,” (!) AKA “quintessence, “ which is supposedly responsible for a claimed “speeding up of the rate of expansion of the Universe,” which is NOT in fact actually occurring. This rubbish as mentioned has even been forced into advanced textbooks in astrophysics as good coin. The reason for these wholesale falsifications of astrophysics is due to the capitalists’ desperation to establish a false basis to claim that the Universe supposedly had a single creation and that it will expand infinitely rather than collapse once again in the Big Crunch completing another cycle in an infinite number. The U.S. governments’ fictitious position is deliberately designed to try to allow for the existence of a “god” as “the creator.”

    The reason that the capitalists have formed an alliance with religion is that the capitalists depend on religion, belief in god and the supernatural as important weapons of deception directed against the masses! This also helps explain the appearance of fraudulent so-called “string theory” which postulates multiple Universes, eleven dimensions, rather than the 4 dimensions which actually do measurably exist. Stephen Hawking the ego-tripping, media-hyped “cosmologist” also postulated supposed “wormholes from one Universe to another” as well as supposed “wormholes” from one end of our Universe to the other to permit time travel “faster than the speed of light” (both of which are completely refuted by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. While Hawking retreated on being so reminded, Heisenberg is brazenly ignored by other professional police-agent propagandists who are committed to such Big Lies of confusion such as the New York Times’ despicable Dennis Overbye and Nicholas Wade (Oy!), Brian Greene and the WBAI/CUNY huckster Michio Kaku, who claims to be an expert on everything allowing him to cover up inter alia the fact that AIDS is Biowarfare by the U.S. Government Against Blacks and Gays primarily. Assuming the mantle of false authority, Kaku also tries to confuse his trusting, credulous, duped listeners (and even CCNY students!) on innumerable other issues. Kaku appears regularly on the BBC and elsewhere to push the new “scientific” fiction while commenting on astronomical events or physics research, the latter of which is largely controlled by the falsely labeled U.S. “intelligence community.” See below.

    The bottom line is that the capitalists want the masses to believe in a god—any god—even though there is no scientific basis whatsoever to support belief in a god (precisely the opposite)—because, to the extent that they believe in god, those who do believe in god believe that what happens in the world, including both natural events and political events, happens according to god’s will! The reality is that natural events occur due to the natural laws of science, physics and evolution, and what happens in world political events is due primarily to the decisions and actions of the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship, which still dominates world events! In the mind of the believer, god and the capitalist dictatorship—the capitalist government—become one! The capitalist government becomes god in the mind of the believer! This is pretty strong stuff and is what Karl Marx meant when he described religion as the opiate of the masses. Such false belief in god blunts the thrust for revolutionary change. Revolutionary change requires an absolutely scientific, objective and logical analysis of political events, political contradiction and political history, in order to learn how to carry out effective social change, meaning Socialist Revolution here in the United States and worldwide!

    Michio Kaku and the So-Called “History Channel” Establishment
    Cover Up the Fact that Einstein’s First 3 Papers in 1905
    Were a Collaborative Effort With His Wife, Mileva Maric!

    It should be mentioned that Michio Kaku and several others in typical sexist fashion in a 2-hour report on Albert Einstein on the so-called “History Channel” covered up through lies of omission the irrefutable fact that Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric made substantial contributions to Einstein’s first 3 papers in 1905, his miracle year, and that her name was on all 3 papers which were first submitted according to the Russian scientist, Abraham Joffe, who saw the signatures of both Einstein and Mileva Einstein-Marity (Marity is a Serbian form of Maric) on the original copies of the those papers. Maric’s name was later removed from all the originals to hide her contributions in keeping with the sexism of that time when women could not even vote and were deemed to be mere chattels. Mileva Maric’s contributions are specifically mentioned in 13 of the 43 of Einstein’s love letters to Maric, those which were not destroyed. Thirteen of those letters contained statements which referred to her research or to their ongoing collaborative effort. The most likely reason for the destruction of the other letters was of course to hide the fact that those 3 historic 1905 papers were in fact a collaborative effort. See: http://home.comcast.net/~xtxinc/mileva.htm and http://itis.volta.alessandria.it/episteme/ep4/ep4maric.htm as well as a very determined and disparaging attack of Mileva Maric at: http://www.esterson.org/milevamaric.htm, which is nevertheless refuted by the actual facts.

    Later in 1914 when they moved to Berlin, and after Einstein had had his macho ego pumped up through the roof by Max Planck and others, Einstein actually tried to get Mileva to sign an onerous document, apparently a provocation designed to drive her away, which was rejected by Maric, which would have reduced her to a virtual slave in her own house! Kaku and the other “experts” of the establishment also cover up the fact that Einstein initially lacked the mathematics to formulate the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein had to be tutored in differential geometry for over a year by his longtime friend and colleague Marcel Grossman, who had attended the classes which Einstein had skipped, before he was able to formulate the mathematical proof of the General Theory of Relativity. The bottom line here is that Einstein was an intuitive astrophysicist, not an experimental astrophysicist and as such would undoubtedly have needed and benefited enormously from the relationship he had with his physicist wife, Mileva Maric, to confirm his ideas and to hear alternative points of view which the surviving letters from Einstein to Mileva indicate he incorporated into his first 3 papers from 1905. Einstein was not a god and had help all along the way.

    The Fact that Einstein’s Brain Was Structurally Different Helped
    But Was Not Determinative in his Contributions to Theoretical Physics!

    The 1985 study of Einstein’s brain by Marian C. Diamond (see below) revealed that Einstein had more glial cells relative to neurons only in the left inferior parietal area, Brodmann’s area 39, where the difference was statistically significant. The parietal lobes of the brain form the association area of the brain. In this area Einstein possessed a significantly greater number of both astrocytes and oligodendroglia (oligodendrocytes) glial cells. Glial cells provide support and nutrition to the neurons, the brain cells—the grey matter. The number of glial cells increases with age given a normal blood circulation and increases up the evolutionary ladder. Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells and fill the space between neurons by enveloping synaptic junctions in the brain, thereby restricting the amount of neurotransmitter molecules which have been released. Astrocytes have special proteins in their membranes which actively remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. In addition, Astrocytes also possess neurotransmitter receptors just like nerve cells, which allow them to most efficiently coordinate their metabolism with the neurons. Astrocytes also absorb extra-cellular potassium ions which build up as the result of neuronal metabolism, as well as absorbing other substances which can interfere with nerve cell function. They cushion the brain and permit a more complex brain structure as their numbers increase. Oligodendroglia cells, like Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, form myelin layers around the neuronal axons (fibers) which insulates the neuronal axons in the brain, and thereby participate in neuronal signal transmission. Larger numbers of glial cells supply more energy for neural circuits. Microglia, which function as phagocytes to remove the debris of dead or degenerating nerve cells and glial cells, were not included in the study. Supposed criticism of Diamond’s study, namely that Diamond and a colleague had previously discovered that a rat in an enriched environment developed more glial cells in each neuron than its counterpart in an impoverished area is totally irrelevant to her findings in Einstein’s brain.

    Einstein’s Association Area Was 15% Larger Than Normal

    The left inferior parietal cortex is part of the association area which was 15% larger in Einstein’ brain due to the fact that Einstein’s brain lacked a complete Sylvian (lateral) fissure, which in Einstein’s brain did not extend posteriorly past the horizontal Central Sulcus of Rolando, which in all brains separates the frontal cortex from the parietal association area. Normal extension of the Sylvian fissure posterior to this point separates the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. The lack of the Sylvian fissure in Einstein’s brain significantly expanded his parietal association area, while decreasing the size of the temporal lobe involved with speech: Einstein did not speak until he was 3 years old and had difficulty forming sentences. (The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement.)

    The glial study was performed by Marian C. Diamond at the University of California (Experimental Neurology, Vol. 88, pages 198-204 (1985). The gross study of Einstein’s brain was only published in 1999 (!) in the Lancet, Volume 353, Issue 9170, Pages 2149 – 2153, 19 June 1999. In addition, this citation and all the authors: Sandra F. Witelson, Debra L. Kigar and Thomas Harvey are censored by Medline, Pub Med, etc. This article is not listed under any of the authors of the study and Internet search engines deliberately misdirect people to a letter in the Lancet which appeared only many months later: The Lancet, Volume 354, Issue 9192, Page 1822, 20 November 1999. The reason that these studies were published so long after Einstein’s death in 1955 was because his brain was so completely different in appearance lacking the posterior extension of the Sylvian fissure. This had NEVER ever been reported in anatomical studies in all the annals of anatomical literature. Because of the fact that it was only 10 years after the end of World War II when Einstein died it was feared that release of the autopsy findings of Einstein’s brain at that time would provide a further basis for anti-Semitism, with the cry going out that “Jews are not like other humans! They are aliens! Look at Einstein’s brain! It’s not the same as other people!” While it is true that Einstein may have had an advantage by his brain anatomy both at the histological and gross levels, it is very unlikely that he would have made his contributions without the input of Mileva Maric his fellow-astrophysicist wife and Marcel Grossman as documented above.

    The Gutkind Letter Documents that Einstein was an Atheist!
    Einstein’s Response to Strong Criticism by Soviet Scientists
    Documents that by May 1949 Einstein was a Communist!

    Einstein revealed very clearly and in no uncertain terms he was an atheist in his January 3, 1954 letter to Eric Gutkind, the Jewish philosopher, who had sent him a copy of his book Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt. The article was sold for $404,000 at auction on May 15, 2008 by Bloomsbury Auctions in London and the relevant text was published in the British Guardian on May 13, 2008, and also in the New York Times on May 17, 2008. The published section states:

    … The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human wea

  9. William H. Depperman says:

    Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics

    The Capitalist Dictatorship Falsifies Basic Science!
    Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis Overbye, Nicholas
    Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!

    Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einstein’s Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as “the new science” in exhaustive falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, and even the so-called “History Channel” In addition, the above-mentioned so-called “cosmologists” publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles to try to popularize this fiction and pass it off as good coin. Not to mention the new textbooks! The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence agency,” a vast army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and every academic discipline and includes even so-called “comedians” working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population!

    There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government, which have threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and have even tried to pump up support for a Mars mission! (?) There is no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic motor used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Moon and Mars trips obviously make no sense except to keep NASA and its suppliers in business and one more pretext to divert money from social spending and to boost U.S. patriotism. Under public pressure the Obama Regime has recently supposedly cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and states that it will privatize the role of NASA going even further than Bush in privatization schemes for the U.S. government. (See below.) The widespread academic opposition to these wide-scale falsifications of science and money wasting ventures is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorship’s lies.

    The Capitalist Dictatorship’s Attempt to Falsify the
    Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in “god”

    The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious “god.” (The statecraft of capitalism’s alliance with religion and belief in “god” and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time critical mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe.

    Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According
    To Einstein’s Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and
    Solve the Equation for Mass: M=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called “Missing Mass”!

    The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed “missing mass.” (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science (November 21, 2008) which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called “missing mass” would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einstein’s formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of and Historical Materialism and the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony “cosmological” theory! See further below!

    Black Holes Have Mass and a Size, Which
    Can Be Calculated, and Rotate on an Axis!

    In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to “a single point less than the size of a single molecule,” a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called “string theorists” (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “singularity.” All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently.

    Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral arms—because of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the elliptical galaxy, which is in the process of becoming a spiral galaxy, first flattens due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in its center. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses, while a Supermassive Black Hole in the constellation Virgo 50 million light years distant contains a Supermassive Black Hole with the mass of 3 billion solar masses.

    The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centripetal force caused by its rapid rotation.

    Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars’ orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy’s inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central black hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole.

    Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract
    Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process
    Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch!

    In the interest of accuracy and it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole.

    According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid.

    Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts
    The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years!

    The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes.

    All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble’s law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent “estimates” of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence community”) are obviously totally false! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction.

    As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called “Naked Science” show that “while black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!” The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are “expelling” matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of “observations” to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch!

    One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined “intelligence community” propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha “blobs,” glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: “Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies” by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a “scientist” or “professor” and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorship’s Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship now resorts to the come on of “naked science” in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting truthful “Naked Science” reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in.

    In response to the heavy push on the so-called “History Channel,” etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri Lemaître, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. Lemaître studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. Lemaître, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. Lemaître called it “the hypothesis of Primeval Atom” and also referred to it as “the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation,” with the word “creation” obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing Lemaître. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “singularity.” As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to E=M/c2, Einstein’s formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: “Big Bang Theory” first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC on March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe.

    It is a fact that Lemaître applied Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as Lemaître is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called “History Channel.” Lemaître also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubble’s Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. Lemaître has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for “a creator” and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although Lemaître had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing Lemaître in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of “creation.” The so-called “History Channel” focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obama’s new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below.

    The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called “standard candles,” while Wendy Freedman’s NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedman’s method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) “the universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage team’s most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +or–1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: “The expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,” by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y.

    This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their “calculations” and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.’s method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as “correction of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,” etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called “dark energy,” Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant,” (“My greatest blunder!” See below), which is declared to be “the opposite of gravity” and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is proffered as “the reason” the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now say that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably “speeded up,” a “finding” which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve political-religious-propagandistic objectives. See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly!

    Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandage’s previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage is now 82 years old and although he is 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandages’s team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweek the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above.

    The U.S. so-called “intelligence community” organized the so-called “Key Project” in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the “Key Project.” This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandage’s studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be “between 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.” This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the “Key Project.” See further below.

    Freedman’s initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent “estimations.” All of Freedman’s estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye!

    Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: “The Big Bang Never Happened” (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking “energy independence” and “clean energy.”).

    NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent “theory of the
    Big Rip” In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and
    The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet!

    NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel March 2009 that 1.) “dark matter” forms a supposed “superstructure” of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious “dark energy” will eventually “become so strong” that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, and falsely claiming that the entire Universe will supposedly “fly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to time” in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as “the Big Rip.” This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered.

    The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and totally bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in dark energy and dark matter, for example) to actually believe them—their overall objective in the first place as explained here, so do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/“cosmologists” keep up a relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals to try to prove the existence of “dark matter,” for example, which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the “superstructure of the universe” but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as “two tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years…” New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false “finding” which the article admits is “no proof” but “tantalizing” (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no “dark matter.” And it can be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of “dark matter” and “dark energy” as well as the fictitious “Higgs Boson” in order to try to “prove” the existence of god! The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies.

    Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony “cosmologists” have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are “not immutable” and are in a process of “constant evolution” supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwin’s “The Evolution of Species.” The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has “temporary relevance” giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in “reality.” (See: “Beyond Einstein,” Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: “learning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.” See comprehensive section on Einstein below.

    The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: “physicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.” This carefully contrived statement implies that because “multiverses,” etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed of as “science.” They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” led by characters such as Michio Kaku. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku & Co. are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the title of a 1987 book by “intelligence community” fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku first concocted so-called “String Theory” in the effort to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious so-called “Beyond Einstein science,” behind a phony glib slick presentation, is equally at home spinning science fiction e.g. “parallel universes, time warps and the tenth dimension” as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant natural law and confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge.

    There is no such thing as “Dark Energy” and the Universe has not suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds, as supposed “proof of its existence.” Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies does indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey virtually at the beginning of the Universe, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of that galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions and where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not!

    The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT flat! It is closed. In reality there are no “multiple universes,” which “pop out of Black Holes” or by any other explanation. The reason for this is that although in a Black Hole mass is infinite (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch. See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. See above.

    There is also no “time travel” either in a practical sense despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einstein’s Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einstein’s General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no “worm holes.” For worm holes to exist just within the known Universe would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which do not actually exist. There are no “strings.” “String theory” is a mathematical attempt to try to refute and supplant, not explain, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory.

    Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe
    Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity!
    This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe
    And “String Theory!” The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also
    Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!”

    The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the most recent paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch. Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the “Singularity,” that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2.) (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127) On the other hand such tidbit reports as “Excess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,” (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as “dark matter.”

    The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the “possibility.” How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.)

    This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed “missing matter” necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces — electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation — all had the same strength. After that point the energy level decreased and gravity separated from the other 3 fundamental forces and with the condensation of matter into the elementary particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons) formed the so-called Standard Model of today’s Universe. These facts, while available, are de-emphasized by the capitalist dictatorship propaganda machine with the false claim that “no one—not even Einstein—has been able formulate the Grand Unified Theory,” in order to try to open the door to fraudulent “string theory.” The 1998 report that neutrinos have mass was blipped in the media and then neutrino research was de-funded worldwide and thereafter suppressed for a period of time. Wonder why?? It is time to employ some inductive reasoning, which is in fact scientific reasoning. (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 1013 times as great as that of the weak nuclear force, and about 1038 times that of gravitation.)

    The Big Crunch will arrive on schedule and another Universe will begin! Einstein once said that a theory of the Universe should be both simple and elegant. He would definitely be rolling over in his grave if he were made aware of today’s totally contrived “science” especially the attempt by these fakers to re-introduce his fudge factor, the so-called “cosmological constant,” which Einstein invented/fabricated to allow for a static solution to his equations and a static Universe, which he was later forced to admit was false after the discovery of the Redshift by Edwin Hubble, which occurs when light or any type of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies shifts toward longer wavelengths, the less energetic part of the spectrum, due to the Doppler effect, thus indicating that those galaxies are moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way (and vice versa) and that the Universe is (still) expanding (while it is also simultaneously contracting on another level as explained). (The Redshift in light from receding galaxies is proportional to their distance from Earth. That is Hubble’s Law.)

    The false assumption of a static Universe had prevented Einstein from predicting that the Universe was expanding. Einstein admitted that the “cosmological constant” was his “biggest blunder.” (In December 1930 Einstein went to Cal Tech on a visiting professorship where he worked with Edwin Hubble and reportedly also apologized for his error.) In 1998 the U.S. so-called “intelligence community,” directed their fleet of fake “cosmologists” and some opportunist and duped astrophysicists to try to pass off Einstein’s fraudulent cosmological constant as the entirely fictitious and admittedly totally unexplained so-called “dark energy,” (!) AKA “quintessence, “ which is supposedly responsible for a claimed “speeding up of the rate of expansion of the Universe,” which is NOT in fact actually occurring. This rubbish as mentioned has even been forced into advanced textbooks in astrophysics as good coin. The reason for these wholesale falsifications of astrophysics is due to the capitalists’ desperation to establish a false basis to claim that the Universe supposedly had a single creation and that it will expand infinitely rather than collapse once again in the Big Crunch completing another cycle in an infinite number. The U.S. governments’ fictitious position is deliberately designed to try to allow for the existence of a “god” as “the creator.”

    The reason that the capitalists have formed an alliance with religion is that the capitalists depend on religion, belief in god and the supernatural as important weapons of deception directed against the masses! This also helps explain the appearance of fraudulent so-called “string theory” which postulates multiple Universes, eleven dimensions, rather than the 4 dimensions which actually do measurably exist. Stephen Hawking the ego-tripping, media-hyped “cosmologist” also postulated supposed “wormholes from one Universe to another” as well as supposed “wormholes” from one end of our Universe to the other to permit time travel “faster than the speed of light” (both of which are completely refuted by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. While Hawking retreated on being so reminded, Heisenberg is brazenly ignored by other professional police-agent propagandists who are committed to such Big Lies of confusion such as the New York Times’ despicable Dennis Overbye and Nicholas Wade (Oy!), Brian Greene and the WBAI/CUNY huckster Michio Kaku, who claims to be an expert on everything allowing him to cover up inter alia the fact that AIDS is Biowarfare by the U.S. Government Against Blacks and Gays primarily. Assuming the mantle of false authority, Kaku also tries to confuse his trusting, credulous, duped listeners (and even CCNY students!) on innumerable other issues. Kaku appears regularly on the BBC and elsewhere to push the new “scientific” fiction while commenting on astronomical events or physics research, the latter of which is largely controlled by the falsely labeled U.S. “intelligence community.” See below.

    The bottom line is that the capitalists want the masses to believe in a god—any god—even though there is no scientific basis whatsoever to support belief in a god (precisely the opposite)—because, to the extent that they believe in god, those who do believe in god believe that what happens in the world, including both natural events and political events, happens according to god’s will! The reality is that natural events occur due to the natural laws of science, physics and evolution, and what happens in world political events is due primarily to the decisions and actions of the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship, which still dominates world events! In the mind of the believer, god and the capitalist dictatorship—the capitalist government—become one! The capitalist government becomes god in the mind of the believer! This is pretty strong stuff and is what Karl Marx meant when he described religion as the opiate of the masses. Such false belief in god blunts the thrust for revolutionary change. Revolutionary change requires an absolutely scientific, objective and logical analysis of political events, political contradiction and political history, in order to learn how to carry out effective social change, meaning Socialist Revolution here in the United States and worldwide!

    Michio Kaku and the So-Called “History Channel” Establishment
    Cover Up the Fact that Einstein’s First 3 Papers in 1905
    Were a Collaborative Effort With His Wife, Mileva Maric!

    It should be mentioned that Michio Kaku and several others in typical sexist fashion in a 2-hour report on Albert Einstein on the so-called “History Channel” covered up through lies of omission the irrefutable fact that Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric made substantial contributions to Einstein’s first 3 papers in 1905, his miracle year, and that her name was on all 3 papers which were first submitted according to the Russian scientist, Abraham Joffe, who saw the signatures of both Einstein and Mileva Einstein-Marity (Marity is a Serbian form of Maric) on the original copies of the those papers. Maric’s name was later removed from all the originals to hide her contributions in keeping with the sexism of that time when women could not even vote and were deemed to be mere chattels. Mileva Maric’s contributions are specifically mentioned in 13 of the 43 of Einstein’s love letters to Maric, those which were not destroyed. Thirteen of those letters contained statements which referred to her research or to their ongoing collaborative effort. The most likely reason for the destruction of the other letters was of course to hide the fact that those 3 historic 1905 papers were in fact a collaborative effort. See: http://home.comcast.net/~xtxinc/mileva.htm and http://itis.volta.alessandria.it/episteme/ep4/ep4maric.htm as well as a very determined and disparaging attack of Mileva Maric at: http://www.esterson.org/milevamaric.htm, which is nevertheless refuted by the actual facts.

    Later in 1914 when they moved to Berlin, and after Einstein had had his macho ego pumped up through the roof by Max Planck and others, Einstein actually tried to get Mileva to sign an onerous document, apparently a provocation designed to drive her away, which was rejected by Maric, which would have reduced her to a virtual slave in her own house! Kaku and the other “experts” of the establishment also cover up the fact that Einstein initially lacked the mathematics to formulate the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein had to be tutored in differential geometry for over a year by his longtime friend and colleague Marcel Grossman, who had attended the classes which Einstein had skipped, before he was able to formulate the mathematical proof of the General Theory of Relativity. The bottom line here is that Einstein was an intuitive astrophysicist, not an experimental astrophysicist and as such would undoubtedly have needed and benefited enormously from the relationship he had with his physicist wife, Mileva Maric, to confirm his ideas and to hear alternative points of view which the surviving letters from Einstein to Mileva indicate he incorporated into his first 3 papers from 1905. Einstein was not a god and had help all along the way.

    The Fact that Einstein’s Brain Was Structurally Different Helped
    But Was Not Determinative in his Contributions to Theoretical Physics!

    The 1985 study of Einstein’s brain by Marian C. Diamond (see below) revealed that Einstein had more glial cells relative to neurons only in the left inferior parietal area, Brodmann’s area 39, where the difference was statistically significant. The parietal lobes of the brain form the association area of the brain. In this area Einstein possessed a significantly greater number of both astrocytes and oligodendroglia (oligodendrocytes) glial cells. Glial cells provide support and nutrition to the neurons, the brain cells—the grey matter. The number of glial cells increases with age given a normal blood circulation and increases up the evolutionary ladder. Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells and fill the space between neurons by enveloping synaptic junctions in the brain, thereby restricting the amount of neurotransmitter molecules which have been released. Astrocytes have special proteins in their membranes which actively remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. In addition, Astrocytes also possess neurotransmitter receptors just like nerve cells, which allow them to most efficiently coordinate their metabolism with the neurons. Astrocytes also absorb extra-cellular potassium ions which build up as the result of neuronal metabolism, as well as absorbing other substances which can interfere with nerve cell function. They cushion the brain and permit a more complex brain structure as their numbers increase. Oligodendroglia cells, like Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, form myelin layers around the neuronal axons (fibers) which insulates the neuronal axons in the brain, and thereby participate in neuronal signal transmission. Larger numbers of glial cells supply more energy for neural circuits. Microglia, which function as phagocytes to remove the debris of dead or degenerating nerve cells and glial cells, were not included in the study. Supposed criticism of Diamond’s study, namely that Diamond and a colleague had previously discovered that a rat in an enriched environment developed more glial cells in each neuron than its counterpart in an impoverished area is totally irrelevant to her findings in Einstein’s brain.

    Einstein’s Association Area Was 15% Larger Than Normal

    The left inferior parietal cortex is part of the association area which was 15% larger in Einstein’ brain due to the fact that Einstein’s brain lacked a complete Sylvian (lateral) fissure, which in Einstein’s brain did not extend posteriorly past the horizontal Central Sulcus of Rolando, which in all brains separates the frontal cortex from the parietal association area. Normal extension of the Sylvian fissure posterior to this point separates the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. The lack of the Sylvian fissure in Einstein’s brain significantly expanded his parietal association area, while decreasing the size of the temporal lobe involved with speech: Einstein did not speak until he was 3 years old and had difficulty forming sentences. (The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement.)

    The glial study was performed by Marian C. Diamond at the University of California (Experimental Neurology, Vol. 88, pages 198-204 (1985). The gross study of Einstein’s brain was only published in 1999 (!) in the Lancet, Volume 353, Issue 9170, Pages 2149 – 2153, 19 June 1999. In addition, this citation and all the authors: Sandra F. Witelson, Debra L. Kigar and Thomas Harvey are censored by Medline, Pub Med, etc. This article is not listed under any of the authors of the study and Internet search engines deliberately misdirect people to a letter in the Lancet which appeared only many months later: The Lancet, Volume 354, Issue 9192, Page 1822, 20 November 1999. The reason that these studies were published so long after Einstein’s death in 1955 was because his brain was so completely different in appearance lacking the posterior extension of the Sylvian fissure. This had NEVER ever been reported in anatomical studies in all the annals of anatomical literature. Because of the fact that it was only 10 years after the end of World War II when Einstein died it was feared that release of the autopsy findings of Einstein’s brain at that time would provide a further basis for anti-Semitism, with the cry going out that “Jews are not like other humans! They are aliens! Look at Einstein’s brain! It’s not the same as other people!” While it is true that Einstein may have had an advantage by his brain anatomy both at the histological and gross levels, it is very unlikely that he would have made his contributions without the input of Mileva Maric his fellow-astrophysicist wife and Marcel Grossman as documented above.

    The Gutkind Letter Documents that Einstein was an Atheist!
    Einstein’s Response to Strong Criticism by Soviet Scientists
    Documents that by May 1949 Einstein was a Communist!

    Einstein revealed very clearly and in no uncertain terms he was an atheist in his January 3, 1954 letter to Eric Gutkind, the Jewish philosopher, who had sent him a copy of his book Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt. The article was sold for $404,000 at auction on May 15, 2008 by Bloomsbury Auctions in London and the relevant text was published in the British Guardian on May 13, 2008, and also in the New York Times on May 17, 2008. The published section states:

    … The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human wea

  10. Pingback: Where Is The Missing Dark Matter? « Bruceleeeowe's Blog

  11. Willliam H. Depperman says:

    This May 21, 2010 update contains a complete refutation of Stephen Hawking’s “time travel,” “Hawking radiation,” “hostile UFOs” and exposes “dark energy,” “dark matter” and the “big rip” as a total fraud:

    Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics

    The Capitalist Dictatorship Falsifies Basic Science!
    Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis Overbye, Nicholas
    Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!

    Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einstein’s Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as “the new science” in exhaustive falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, the “Discovery Channel” and even the so-called “History Channel.” There is also a simultaneous attempt to generate panic based on falsely claimed imminent threats from space from rogue asteroids to Stephen Hawking’s alarmist claim of future invasions by inevitably hostile space aliens. See section on UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life. In addition, the above-mentioned so-called “cosmologists” publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles to try to popularize this fiction and pass it off as good coin. Not to mention the new textbooks! The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence agency,” an actual army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and every academic discipline and includes even so-called “comedians” working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population!

    There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government, which have threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and have even tried to pump up support for a Mars mission! (?) There is no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Moon and Mars trips obviously make no sense except to keep NASA and its suppliers in business and are one more pretext to divert money from social spending and to boost U.S. patriotism. Under public pressure the Obama Regime has supposedly cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and but states that it will privatize the role of NASA going even further than Bush in privatization schemes for the U.S. government. (See below.) The widespread academic opposition to these wide-scale falsifications of science and money wasting ventures is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorship’s lies.

    The Capitalist Dictatorship’s Attempt to Falsify the
    Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in “god”

    The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious “god.” (The statecraft of capitalism’s alliance with religion and belief in “god” and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time critical mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe.

    Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According
    To Einstein’s Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and
    Solve the Equation for Mass: M=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called “Missing Mass”!

    The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed “missing mass.” (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science (November 21, 2008) which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called “missing mass” would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einstein’s formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of and Historical Materialism and the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony “cosmological” theory! See further below!

    Black Holes Have Mass and a Size, Which
    Can Be Calculated, and Rotate on an Axis!

    In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to “less than the size of a single molecule,” a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called “string theorists” (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. The Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is 15 million miles in diameter—not “the size of a single molecule”! Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” The size of the final “Singularity” which forms prior to the Big Bang would thus be quite large because it must contain all the nuclear material in the entire Universe. All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently.

    Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! Black Holes rotate as fast or faster. All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral arms—because of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As mentioned this fact is entirely covered up and denied by the phony NASA “scientists” on television, e.g., National Geographic TV. As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the early elliptical galaxies, in the process of becoming a spiral galaxies, begin to flatten due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in their center which causes the flattening. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses. The largest known Supermassive Black Hole in the OJ 287 Quasar contains 18 billion solar masses!

    The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centrifugal force caused by its rapid rotation.

    Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral galaxy reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars’ orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy’s inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central black hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole.

    Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract
    Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process
    Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch!

    In the interest of accuracy and it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole.

    According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid.

    Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts
    The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years!

    The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes. Gamma ray bursts are generated by hypernova, which are simply very large supernova, the collapse of a stars with masses 100 to 200 times that of the sun. Contrary to the lies designed to create confusion, which appear on the National Geographic so-called Discovery Channel “How the Universe Works” programs, not all early galaxies possessed enough mass to produce a quasar. There is no evidence for example, that the Milky Way Galaxy, as claimed by Micho Kaku & Co. was a quasar! The Supermassive Black Hole at its center is far too small! And the mass extinction on Earth 440-450 million years ago was undoubtedly NOT caused by a gamma ray burst from a hypernova, but from the continental drift of a large landmass (Gondwana) into the south polar region causing a global temperature drop, glaciation and lowering of sea level which destroyed 60% of habitats around the continental shelves at a time when all life was confined to the seas and oceans. Evidence documenting this was found in deposits in the Sahara Desert.

    All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble’s law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent “estimates” of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence community”) are obviously TOTALLY FALSE! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction.

    As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called “Naked Science” show that “while black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!” (!) And on May 17,2010, Michelle Thaler of NASA disingenuously stated: “We do not know which comes first the galaxy or the Black Hole” (!) and further stated that when 2 spiral galaxies collide the result is an elliptical galaxy “which does not spin!” This is another Big Lie and demonstrates a very systematized structure of lies. The truth is that the elliptical galaxy in this case is only a temporary structure. The Black Holes, which drove the 2 colliding spiral galaxies, combine and a larger spiral galaxy is formed. The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie by the misnamed “intelligence community” is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final Singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are “expelling” matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of “observations” to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch!

    One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined “intelligence community” propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha “blobs,” glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: “Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies” by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a “scientist” or “professor” and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorship’s Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship also resorts to the come on of “naked science” in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting some truthful “Naked Science” reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in.

    In response to the heavy push on the so-called “History Channel,” etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri Lemaître, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. Lemaître studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. Lemaître, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. Lemaître called it “the hypothesis of Primeval Atom” and also referred to it as “the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation,” with the word “creation” obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing Lemaître. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to E=M/c2, Einstein’s formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The Singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: “Big Bang Theory” first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC on March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe.

    It is a fact that Lemaître applied Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as Lemaître is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called “History Channel.” Lemaître also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubble’s Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. Lemaître has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for “a creator” and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although Lemaître had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing Lemaître in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of “creation.” The so-called “History Channel” focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obama’s new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below.

    The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called “standard candles,” while Wendy Freedman’s NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedman’s method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) “the universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage team’s most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +or–1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: “The expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,” by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y.

    This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their “calculations” and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.’s method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as “correction of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,” etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called “dark energy,” Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant,” (“My greatest blunder!” See below), which is declared to be “the opposite of gravity” and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is falsely proffered as “the reason” the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now falsely state that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably “speeded up,” a “finding” which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve political-religious-propagandistic objectives. See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly!

    Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandage’s previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage is now 82 years old and although he is 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandages’s team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweek the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above.

    The U.S. so-called “intelligence community” organized the so-called “Key Project” in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the “Key Project.” This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandage’s studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be “between 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.” This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the “Key Project.” See further below.

    Freedman’s initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent “estimations.” All of Freedman’s estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye!

    Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: “The Big Bang Never Happened” (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking “energy independence” and “clean energy.”).

    NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent “theory of the
    Big Rip” In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and
    The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet!

    NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel beginning in March 2009 that 1.) “dark matter” forms a supposed “filamentous superstructure” of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious “dark energy” will supposedly eventually “become so strong” that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, so that that the entire Universe will then supposedly “fly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to time” in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as “the Big Rip.” This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. There is no “filamentous superstructure of the universe held together by dark matter.” And phantasmagorical images of galactic superclusters do NOT prove the existence of a “filamentous superstructure” and are simply a photographic effect due to the enormous luminosity of such dense accumulations of stars. As mentioned above the great wall of galaxies is not due to a “dark matter superstructure” but is simply due to the irregularities in the Big Bang explosion, which was not uniform as in any explosion. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered.

    The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and MORE totally outrageous, bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in dark energy and dark matter, for example) to actually believe them—their overall objective in the first place as explained here. So do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/ “cosmologists” keep up a truly relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals and on TV with a never ending stream of phantasmagoric images blending and cascading one into another to try to help prove their scripted Big Lies, for example, the existence of “dark matter,” which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the “superstructure of the universe” but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as “two tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years…” New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false “finding” which the article admits is “no proof” but “tantalizing” (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no “dark matter.” Claims on the National Geographic Discovery Channel and elsewhere in April-May 2010 that “gravitational lensing and cosmological expansion rates” have “confirmed” its existence are totally fabricated! Gravity, not dark matter, is responsible for ALL gravitational lensing and that is where it gets its name. And there is NO “large halo of unseen matter (an oxymoron!) extending beyond the visible stars.” But according to Michio Kaku & Co., “Dark matter is in a struggle with dark energy and dark energy wins in the end in the Big Rip!” Not a WORD about gravity! And according to Michio Kaku and the NASA propagandists, eventually stars will all simply “blink out and the universe will be dark…again!? The age of stars will be over!” Kaku just makes it up in a jumble as he goes along. Anything for his cause! What is his cause? See below.

    It can also be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of “dark matter” and “dark energy” as well as the “Higgs Boson,” the so-called “god particle,” which is reputed to be the particle which may impart mass to all other particles after the Big Bang. The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model in particle physics. At present there are NO known elementary scalar particles in nature. There are numerous Higgsless models, which do not depend on the Higgs Boson or Higgs Field. The top contender presently is the Three-Site Higgsless model. Whether or not the Higgs Boson exists or does not exist, its importance has been completely overstated in any case, in order that in the event of its discovery the media may falsely claim to have “proved” the existence of “god!” In any case, the Higgs Boson has absolutely nothing to do with “god” and no reputable physicist has ever made such a claim. The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies.

    Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony “cosmologists” who control the airways and media, have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are “not immutable” and are in a process of “constant evolution” supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwin’s “The Evolution of Species.” The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has “temporary relevance” giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in “reality.” (See: “Beyond Einstein,” Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: “learning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.” See comprehensive section on Einstein.

    The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: “physicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.” This carefully contrived statement implies that because “multiverses,” etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed of as “science.” They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” led by heavily hyped characters such as Michio Kaku. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku, & Co., are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics and are forced to tell many lies in order to try to achieve their objectives. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the very title of a 1987 book by “intelligence community” fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku tried to popularize so-called “String Theory,” concocted in the effort to try to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious, bogus so-called “Beyond Einstein science,” behind a phony slick, unctuous presentation, is equally at home passing off science fiction e.g. “parallel universes, time warps, time travel and the tenth dimension” as science as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant the natural laws of physics and to confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge. Based on only ONE non-cyclic Big Bang, “String Theory” is thus a back door to Creationism!

    There is no such thing as “Dark Energy” and the Universe has not suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds, as supposed “proof of its existence.” Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies do indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey virtually at the beginning of the Universe, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of that galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions and where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not!

    The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT flat! It is closed. In reality there are no “multiple universes,” which “pop out of Black Holes” or by any other explanation. A Universe arises ONLY from a Big Bang! Although mass is infinite in a Black Hole (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Final Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch prior to the Big Bang. The point when Critical Mass is reached is the point when a Big Bang occurs! See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. This can not occur in the Large Hadron Collidor no matter how high the energies attained or how “large” the collidor itself may be claimed to be!!

    Stephen Hawking’s claimed existence of “exploding miniature Black Holes,” which “permit particles to leak out“ in a quantum process” (!), eventually causing Black Holes to “EVAPORATE” (!), due to the pretentiously designated, so-called: “Hawking Evaporation,” or to “finally explode entirely” is based on fraudulent “String Theory” related mathematics and is baseless nonsense. Note that so-called “Hawking radiation” has NEVER BEEN OBSERVED and is ENTIRELY FICTITIOUS! Hawking’s wild claims were based on the fact that on a visit to the USSR in 1974 the Soviet physicist Alexander Starobinsky told Hawking that according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, rotating black holes should create and emit particles. (!) Oh? But the truth is that in a Black Hole or “Singularity” the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and all laws of physics DO NOT APPLY and DO NOT EVEN EXIST! Starobinsky should have known that fundamental fact but it cannot be ruled out that in the middle of the Cold War he may have recognized that Hawking was such a nut-job ego tripper that he would fall for virtually anything in order to make a big splash in physics. And the question immediately arises, if Starobinsky really thought he had made such a profound discovery why didn’t he come out with it himself? In any case there is no radiation whatsoever of any type emitted from any Black Hole itself! Nevertheless, such absurd and ridiculous claims are given credence in the media and given a heavy push on websites which permit NO COMMENT!

    And on that very same TV show on the highly discredited “Naked Science” National Geographic (Discovery) Channel it was stated, with NO PROOF WHATSOEVER and with no legitimate counter-arguments ever permitted, the totally bizarre claim that “String Theory” is “the best explanation of the origin of the Universe,” which it most certainly is NOT! On that program Hawking and “String Theorists” absurdly stated: “the Big Bang occurred when gravity weakened” (!) because “after the Big Bang gravity (supposedly) entered the 7 to 9 extra dimensions (in “String Theory”) and was weakened.” Duh! Such rubbish! (!) Finally, after presenting one concoction after another for almost an hour falsely dressed up as “science,” the April 20, 2010 “Naked Science” program (which is to be repeated!), apparently in a pathetic attempt to try to save face and keep some semblance of credibility among the growing majority of those who see through their lies, concluded with the unexpected disclaimer: “There is only one catch! There is no proof for any of this!” Right! But since then there have been no more disclaimers of these relentlessly pushed Big Lies! Parenthesis added.

    There is also no “time travel” in a practical sense either despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einstein’s Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einstein’s General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no “wormholes.” These fraudsters intone Einstein’s name by falsely claiming that there are two “valid solutions” to the General Theory of Relativity which contain “wormholes.” This is a Big Lie! The “solutions” cited are NOT actually valid! The first type falsely postulated, the “Schwarzchild wormhole,” which they also falsely designate with the label “Einstein-Rosen bridges (!?),” depends on a Black Hole, “which has no charge and no angular momentum!” But ALL Black Holes rotate and thus have angular momentum! (See above.) The second type, the so-called “traversable wormholes,” would require the existence of “exotic (non-baryonic) matter,” which does NOT exist and which itself would violate energy conditions specified in the General Theory and would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which also do not actually exist in the known Universe. At best this is all mathematical imaginings of those who want to be “the next Einstein.” Einstein himself realized that his later mathematical attempts to formulate a Grand Unified Theory were simply incorrect and were not leading in the right direction. In addition, there are no “strings.” “String Theory” is a mathematical attempt to try to refute, compete with and supplant, NOT EXPLAIN, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory.

    Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe
    Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity!
    This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe
    And “String Theory!” The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also
    Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!”

    The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch. Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the “Singularity,” that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127) Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2. On the other hand such tidbit reports as “Excess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,” (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as “dark matter.”

    The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the “possibility.” How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.)

    This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed “missing matter” necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces — electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation — all had the same strength. After that point the energy level decreased and gravity separated from the other 3 fundamental forces and with the condensation of matter into the elementary particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons) formed the so-called Standard Model of today’s Universe. These facts, while available, are de-emphasized by the capitalist dictatorship propaganda machine with the false claim that “no one—not even Einstein—has been able formulate the Grand Unified Theory,” in order to try to open the door to fraudulent “string theory.” The 1998 report that neutrinos have mass was blipped in the media and then neutrino research was de-funded worldwide and thereafter suppressed for a period of time. Wonder why?? It is time to employ some inductive reasoning, which is in fact scientific reasoning. (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 10 x13 times as great as that of the weak nuclear force, and about 10 x38 times that of gravitation.)

    The Big Crunch will arrive on schedule and another Universe will begin! Einstein once said that a theory of the Universe should be both simple and elegant. Hawking sounds like a total jerk when he states that the Big Crunch is “too neat” and he prefers the “Big Rip.” Whaaa? See below. Einstein would definitely be rolling over in his grave if he were made aware of today’s totally contrived “science” especially the attempt by these fakers to re-introduce his fudge factor, the so-called “cosmological constant,” which Einstein invented/fabricated to allow for a static solution to his equations and a static Universe, which he was later forced to admit was false after the discovery of the Redshift by Edwin Hubble, which occurs when light or any type of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies shifts toward longer wavelengths, the less energetic part of the spectrum, due to the Doppler effect, thus indicating that those galaxies are moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way (and vice versa) and that the Universe is (still) expanding, while it is also simultaneously contracting on another level as explained. The Redshift in light from receding galaxies is proportional to their distance from Earth. That is Hubble’s Law.

    The false assumption of a static Universe had prevented Einstein from predicting that the Universe was expanding. Einstein admitted that the “cosmological constant” was his “biggest blunder.” In December 1930 Einstein went to Cal Tech on a visiting professorship where he worked with Edwin Hubble and reportedly also apologized for his error. In 1998 the U.S. so-called “intelligence community,” directed their fleet of fake “cosmologists” and some opportunist and duped astrophysicists to try to pass off Einstein’s fraudulent cosmological constant as the entirely fictitious and admittedly totally unexplained so-called “dark energy,” (!) AKA “quintessence, “ which is supposedly responsible for a claimed “speeding up of the rate of expansion of the Universe,” which is NOT in fact actually occurring. This rubbish, as mentioned, has even been forced into advanced textbooks in astrophysics as supposed good coin. The reason for these wholesale falsifications of astrophysics is due to the capitalists’ desperation to establish a false basis to claim that the Universe supposedly had a single creation and that it will expand infinitely rather than collapse once again in the Big Crunch completing another cycle in an infinite number. The U.S. governments’ fictitious position is deliberately designed to try to allow for the existence of a “god” as “the creator.”

    The reason that the capitalists have formed an alliance with religion is that the capitalists depend on religion, belief in god and the supernatural as important weapons of deception directed against the masses! This also helps explain the appearance of fraudulent so-called “string theory” which postulates multiple Universes, eleven dimensions, rather than the 4 dimensions which actually do measurably exist. Stephen Hawking the ego-tripping, media-hyped “cosmologist” is once again postulating supposed “wormholes from one Universe to another” as well as supposed “wormholes” from one end of our Universe to the other to permit time travel “faster than the speed of light” (both of which are completely refuted by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle). While Hawking temporarily retreated on the issue of time travel on being so reminded before recently re-embracing what he fully knows to be total nonsense, Heisenberg is also brazenly ignored by others who are professional police-agent propagandists fully committed to such Big Lies of confusion such as the New York Times’ despicable Dennis Overbye and Nicholas Wade (Oy!), Brian Greene and the WBAI/CUNY huckster Michio Kaku, who claims to be an expert on everything, allowing him to cover up inter alia the documented fact that AIDS is Biowarfare by the U.S. Government Against Blacks and Gays primarily. Assuming the mantle of false authority, Kaku also tries to confuse his trusting, credulous, duped and even fawning listeners (including CCNY students!) on innumerable other issues. Kaku appears regularly on the BBC and elsewhere to push the new “scientific” fiction while commenting on astronomical events or physics research, the latter of which is largely controlled by the falsely labeled U.S. “intelligence community.” See below.

    Despite Stephen Hawking’s False Claims
    Time Travel is NOT Possible!

    Normally the topic of time travel would not be covered to this extent, but this issue must be considered at greater length because Stephen Hawking is a high profile celebrity balloon being foisted on an unsuspecting public and provided a TV and media stage

  12. Willliam H. Depperman says:

    Normally the topic of time travel would not be covered to this extent, but this issue must be considered at greater length because Stephen Hawking is a high profile celebrity balloon being foisted on an unsuspecting public and provided a TV and media stage to promote his total nonsense by the U.S. “intelligence community.” The media is using genuinely hypnotic, phantasmagorical, digitally enhanced false presentations by Hawking and others on the National Geographic TV Channel and other channels in order to distract from the central facts of theoretical astrophysics as presented herein and in order to try to keep the masses confused from every conceivable angle. Because of what amounts to a provocation, namely the recent onslaught of Big Lie “science” bombarding the TV airways, it behooves this writer to further refute the lies being hawked by Stephen Hawking and his NASA cronies. Hawking falsely claims: “there are wormholes everywhere in the 3 dimensional world and they exist also in the fourth dimension, where they exist at one billion trillionth trillionth of a centimeter! Trust me!” Right! Hawking tells us that “wormholes form in the so-called ‘quantum foam,’” where supposedly he can avoid violating Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and other laws and paradoxes which do not permit backwards time travel. See above. But Hawking cannot avoid the uncertainty principle and the paradoxes which prevent backwards “time travel” either by “wormholes” or by any other means! And he knows it! ”Quantum foam” is supposedly a description of subatomic spacetime turbulence at extremely small distances of the order of the Planck length. At such small scales of time and space the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle supposedly allows particles and energy to briefly come into existence, and then annihilate, without violating the law of conservation of mass and energy! But then Hawking bizarrely claims: “scientists will eventually capture and ENLARGE a worm hole a trillion times to be large enough for a space ship…to travel at 99% the speed of light…after 6 years in flight,” supposedly to get up speed. A totally bizarre and ridiculous assertion in itself!

    At the enlarged size we must assume then that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and all Laws and paradoxes which prevent backwards time travel WILL once again apply! Presto, no backward time travel for Stephen Hawking! Hawking is finally forced to concede that going backwards in time is not possible because cause and effect would be reversed, which is not possible. In addition to this most obvious paradox of causality, two other unresolvable problems in backward time travel exist: 1.) Traveling backwards in time would also violate the law that the mass-energy of the Universe must remain constant, within the limits of the uncertainty principle. For example, a person traveling backwards in time would increase the mass of the universe at that point, which is not possible. 2.) Traveling backward in time would also cause a decrease in the Universe’s entropy, which always increases at a nonnegative rate. Forward time travel on the other hand generates no paradoxes and is described by Special and General Relativity but is not practical in reality.

    Forward time travel in a practical sense time travel is not really possible. Hawking, however, insists it is supposedly possible if in order to reach a speed close enough to the speed of light in order to achieve the objective, a rocket ship course is set for just a little off center of the Supermassive Black Hole at the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy (!?), or a course is set to travel around the Earth for 6 years finishing at 99% the speed of light (somehow), which would supposedly allow travel 100 years into the future. As noted previously, mass becomes infinite at the speed of light and even well before the half-way point is reached the increased MASS of Hawking’s spaceship would indubitably prevent its further acceleration especially if primitive rocketry were being employed. Hawking describes his “spaceship” as “HUGE, because of all the FUEL it would have to carry,” (think oil companies drilling into the future) and is actually pictured as the typical cumbersome, multiple-defense-contract, primitive rocket powered NASA-inspired aerodynamically-ridiculous science fiction movie vehicle! Never even a mention of a nuclear powered flying saucer with the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine, which would be required for any interstellar voyages! All things considered it is time to wise up! Stephen Hawking is NOT a genius in any sense of the word. His false propaganda musings also demonstrate that his general knowledge and even his scientific knowledge outside of mathematics is actually very, very limited! We are left to fawn over such nonsense!

    A Further Note on Michio Kaku:

    It is a rule of statecraft that a government control and operate its own “opposition.” In the United States, the center of world capitalism-imperialism, the capitalist dictatorship controls the leadership of all supposed “left,” “socialist” or “Communist” political groups and parties. In addition, the capitalists also control the leaderships of all conspiracy groups and single-issue groups where the solutions are always based on the number one Big Lie of capitalism, i.e. that capitalism can be reformed, which it cannot. Single-issue groups represent divide (and conquer) of various political issues/problems most of which are created or perpetuated by capitalism, none of which are properly connected and linked to the need for a Socialist Revolution in the United States. Kaku began his political career by being placed at the front of the single-issue Anti-Nuclear Movement. Kaku began his work in the “intelligence community” in the early 1960’s just out of high school as a mathematical whiz kid, by becoming a protégé of Edward Teller as the “father of the Hydrogen Bomb” and the Neutron Bomb, the latter which is designed to kill people primarily while leaving property—private property—intact, the ultimate capitalist weapon.

    A person or group is defined politically by what the person or group says and what it does not say and by what the person or group does and does not do. Unlike Stephen Hawking Kaku’s words and actions clearly identify him as a political police agent provocateur. (See below.) Kaku worked with Teller at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, which is directly connected to both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Kaku undoubtedly had top clearance from Edward Teller and moved freely between all three and has stated that at the time he was involved with developing the next stage of nuclear weapons research with Teller. Kaku claims that in the early 1980’s he gave up a career in nuclear weapons design and was attracted to the peace movement and anti-nuclear movement supposedly because of Pacifica radio programs he heard in the 1960’s. Oy! Right! I don’t believe you! The truth is that the U.S. “intelligence community” needed a young loyal, glib, supposedly “anti-nuclear” authority figure as a counter-insurgent (political police agent) to help keep the Anti-Nuclear Movement anti-Communist and help lead it to defeat and recruited Kaku, undoubtedly with Teller’s recommendation, immediately putting him in front of the demonstrations at Columbia University against the Triga Reactor on campus in the wake of the Three-Mile Island meltdown, his debut attended by this writer at that first demonstration. (When the U.S. Department of Energy converted the fuel in Triga reactors from uranium zirconium hydride to low-enriched uranium a meltdown became possible at the university setting, which had been virtually impossible previously.) Note also that there is an apparent difference between Michio Kaku and Stephen Hawking: Though their positions more or less coincide, Hawking is apparently motivated by personal aggrandizement and his desire to be awarded a Nobel Prize (for what Stephen…for COOPERATING?), while the media, an arm of the “intelligence community” provides maximum exposure to all of his fantastical, reactionary and genuinely unscientific theories/imaginings, in multiple full-hour TV shows on the “Discovery Channel,” for example. Michio Kaku on the other hand is more easily identified as a politically motivated political police agent, whose background and objectives are explained above. They both play a negative role.

    Later Kaku sold out his supposed anti-nuclear “credentials” by writing a 1982 book with the title “Nuclear Power: Both Sides,” (!) which presented arguments against nuclear power followed by false “arguments” for nuclear power in order to keep the option of nuclear power viable! The book does NOT emphasize the BOTTOM LINE OF NUCLEAR POWER UP FRONT,: namely that nuclear power produces permanently non-disposable nuclear waste which will eventually get back into the environment through ground water, etc! Nuclear waste can NEVER EVER be disposed of! Period! Thus, there can be NO VIABLE HONEST PRO-NUCLEAR POSITION! This is what Kaku soft peddles! On February 4, 2010 Obama, by Bush-style executive decree, ordered that a new nuclear reactors should be built using $54 billion of stimulus money under the Big Lie false claim that nuclear power, which produces the dirtiest, totally non-disposable nuclear waste, was now supposedly “clean energy.” (!) While the U.S. government-led “Anti-Nuclear Movement remained silent! By executive decree Obama also ordered stimulus money to fund “clean coal” and drilling for oil off the U.S. coastline which will inevitably result in completely polluting the nations beaches. They have already destroyed the Gulf of Mexico! By continuing oil drilling Obama further demonstrates that the capitalists have NO intention whatsoever of trying to reverse the Runaway Greenhouse Effect. It should also be noted that Kaku was trained in the infantry and was all set to be deployed to Viet Nam just “when the war ended” in 1975, while his fellow inductees were sitting down on the wharfs in San Francisco and refusing to even get into the troop ships while a MUTINY broke out in Vietnam, which forced the total evacuation of all U.S. forces within days and hours, while our little patriot Kaku was all raring and ready to go and fight those dastardly Communists in Viet Nam. Anti-Communism remains Kaku’s primary political motivation. Kaku hides the fact that a million-strong Communist movement in the United States was the only thing which forced FDR to formulate the New Deal Social Programs, which the capitalist dictatorship under Obama is now trying to abolish in practice.

    The Truth About Unidentified Flying Objects
    UFOs (Flying Saucers) and Extraterrestrial Life:

    At the risk of sensationalizing the Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics this writer and many others believe that is important to respond to and put into proper perspective the U.S. Government’s official position on: 1.) UFOs, and 2.) Extraterrestrial life, 3.) The consistently hostile portrayal of both by the media/entertainment industry, which is simply an arm of the U.S. Government’s dishonestly labeled “intelligence community.” This includes the most recent attack on “aliens” by Stephen Hawking, who is increasingly discredited among scientists but still heavily hyped by the capitalist dictatorship as he becomes more bizarre in his pronouncements, for reasons explained above. First of all, it is important to restate one of the fundamental Rules of Statecraft, namely that a government control and operate its own “opposition.” Within the capitalist dictatorship this applies not only to political parties and organizations as explained above but also to virtually every important issue and of course includes the hot topic of UFOs and extraterrestrial life. Note that despite an enormous effort to deny it the June 8, 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia was a nuclear explosion equal to 30 million tons of TNT and is further proof of the existence of UFOs. In addition, the cylindrical fireball made 2 right-angle turns and exploded at between 2 to 3 miles altitude, and at ground zero left fused particles of magnetite, germanium (used in semiconductors) and silicate globules with traces of copper (possibly from wire), cobalt and nickel, not present in meteorites or comets. Ground zero precisely resembled ground zero at Hiroshima. In addition, the enormous heat of the explosion melted the permafrost in the Taiga and created several small lakes. There was NO loss of life in the explosion apparently because those in the flying saucer knew the area was uninhabited. See “The Fire Came By” by Baxter and Atkins, Doubleday 1976. At 5:11 PM on December 9, 1997 over the uninhabited southern tip of Greenland another “fireball,” a nuclear powered UFO, exploded at about the same height as in Tunguska and was “so bright as to turn night into day at a distance of 60 miles, and can be compared to the light of a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere.” (New York Times, December 19, 1997, Page A17)

    It is a fact that ever since the film “The Day The Earth Stood Still” appeared in 1951 starring Michael Rennie, Patricia Neal and Sam Jaffe, where UFOs and alien life are portrayed favorably (see below), all portrayals by the capitalist dictatorship of alien life have been hostile and/or maximally dishonest. The reason is that the overwhelming majority of people on this planet already believe that UFOs exist and many have seen flying saucers themselves. But the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship will NEVER EVER officially acknowledge the presence of UFOs and will always deny their existence because by so doing they would be openly admitting that the present “civilization” on Earth is a low-level inferior civilization, which more advanced civilizations REFUSE TO MAKE ANY CONTACT WITH! Acknowledging the existence of UFOs (flying saucers) would immediately also raise that crucial question of WHY the more advanced civilizations, which have solved the problem of space travel between stars, do NOT contact the governments of Earth. The reason is elementary and it is fundamental.

    The Rule of Advanced Civilizations Never to Contact Lower Civilizations:

    It is obviously a Rule of Advanced Civilizations never to make direct or official contact with a lower civilization defined as 1.) A civilization which has not advanced to World Socialism, which is the only way to permanently abolish the basis of all war on that planet as well as all threats to visiting civilizations and 2.) A civilization that officially denies the existence of UFOs and simultaneously expresses NOTHING but hatred, fear and hostility directed at UFOs and extraterrestrial life in its “popular culture,” e.g. films. 3.) A civilization which has not developed the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine which is used to power travel between stars. Obviously no advanced civilization which has visited Earth would even dream of making official contact with such a civilization which now fulfills ALL of the above criteria and represents nothing but potential danger to them. Such an advanced civilization could never share ANY scientific information with such a lower civilization, such as the mechanism of the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine because lower civilizations, which have not reached the stage of World Socialism are fundamentally based on war, mass murder, crime and subjugation to steal new resources and new markets to increase private profits, and would immediately turn around and attack the advanced civilization. This is a no-brainer and we have to give the advanced civilization credit for some brains. The government uses “Alien abduction” claims to discredit UFO reports in general but they may have some truth.

    The United States government and other governments control virtually all information on UFOs. This includes virtually the entire Internet! With one exception observed by this writer, it is noteworthy that in this age of super high quality cell phone cameras with video capabilities, that there is NOT even one good photograph or video of a UFO publicly available. The exception was a short video, which appeared on RT Russian Television in the United States suddenly at the end of a news broadcast approximately 2 years ago and was BLIPPED one time only. The very clear video was of a UFO from a very short distance of no more than about 50 yards. There was no mistaking what it was and RT Russian Television provided no commentary. The Russian Federation was obviously tweaking their U.S. “partners” and naturally there was no comment by the U.S.

    It is absolutely certain that all UFOs come from within out own galaxy because the nearest other galaxy is Andromeda, which is 2,500,000 light years away, a distance so great that it would completely rule out intergalactic travel. The descriptions of the extraterrestrials from the July 1947 Roswell, New Mexico UFO crash describe very thin humanlike individuals somewhat smaller than humans with bilateral symmetry and large heads. Other reports concur with this description. The reason that they are so thin is due to calcium loss from the bones over generations of space travel. These advanced civilizations undoubtedly also use suspended animation during their very long interstellar journeys and/or employ in vivo telomerase to permanently halt all aging. Evolution rules out entirely the fantastical forms of extraterrestrial life imagined by Stephen Hawking apparently inspired by other U.S. government-approved science fiction writers, including those who were responsible for the film “Independence Day,” etc. See below. Such increasingly crazed statements by people such as Stephen Hawking are thus also a direct attack on Evolution. Regarding speed of interstellar travel: mass becomes infinite as one approaches the speed of light. This would limit in a very practical sense the speed of interstellar travel to perhaps half the speed of light at most if that. That is still very fast and their actual velocity is probably much less actually. Those who set out on such missions from other planets know that they will never return because the distances are so vast. They are comparable to Lewis and Clark type exploratory expeditions. They would make their reports over the years, which would travel at the speed of light but would still take a long time to reach home.

    Any and all supposed threats to “invade Earth,” “drain its resources” and/or “colonize Earth” are entirely false and fictitious. The movie “Independence Day” was made to refurbish U.S. patriotism/jingoism and incite hatred of all “aliens” and most certainly does not concur with the descriptions in all previous reports of UFOs and of extraterrestrial life dating back for millennia. Note that even the Back to Africa Movement of Marcus Garvey could never have been accomplished because of the huge increase in the number of Black people in the U.S. since the advent of slavery. Colonizing and taking over an inhabited planet is sheer total nonsense. The “attempts” by NASA, etc. to “launch space probes to contact aliens” are just going through the motions and are just another denial of the fact that UFOs have been documented to have visited the Earth for millennia according to primitive drawings on the walls of caves and later depictions in other societies. No advanced civilization would want to advertise its presence to lower civilizations because of the threat described above, so even the giant Arecibo Radiotelescope in Puerto Rico is unlikely to detect presence of advanced “aliens.” The capitalist dictatorship uses every conceivable thing possible, even the threat of future invasions of aliens or rogue asteroids to try to generate the MASS PSYCHOLOGY OF CRISIS, which causes the masses to rally around and increase trust in the government no matter how oppressive and irresponsible it is, with the expectation that it will protect them. Incidentally, the strategy to divert even rather large asteroids has already been worked out in detail but is rarely mentioned in order to maintain as much fear and foreboding as possible, and simply involves detonating a nuclear device to the side of the asteroid, not on it, in order to divert it, not shatter it into multiple pieces, which would otherwise all be directed at Earth. Note that the so-called “War on Terror” is also designed to generate the Mass Psychology of Crisis in providing the pretext to maintain capitalism in its Final Stage of Permanent War and State Terrorism. If Islamic Fundamentalism did not exist it would have to be invented, because it is perfect for organizing and manipulating Mass Provocations as the pretext for the so-called War on Terror. On the other hand the capitalist dictatorship reveals that it has no intention whatsoever of protecting the World from Global Warming now at the stage of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect, as it steps up drilling for oil and destroys all life and ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico! At a point where the oil economy should have been ended Obama, while calling for a temporary halt in new drilling until it is out of the headlines, has allowed all other existing deep water oil wells to continue drilling (!) and has decreed that HE will extend the same deep water drilling into the Atlantic Ocean all along the Eastern Seaboard where the seas are much rougher. Capitalism is totally irresponsible!

    The Statecraft: Why the Capitalist Dictatorship
    Wants the Masses to Believe in God:

    The bottom line is that the capitalists want the masses to believe in a god—any god—even though there is no scientific basis whatsoever to support belief in a god (Precisely the opposite!)—because, to the extent that they believe in god, those who do believe in god believe that what happens in the world, including both natural events and political events, happens according to god’s will! The reality is that natural events occur due to the natural laws of science, physics and evolution, and what happens in world political events is due primarily to the decisions and actions of the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship, which still dominates world events! In the mind of the believer, god and the capitalist dictatorship—the capitalist government—become one! The capitalist government becomes god in the mind of the believer! This is pretty strong stuff and is what Karl Marx meant when he described religion as the opiate of the masses. Such false belief in god blunts the thrust for revolutionary change. Revolutionary change requires an absolutely scientific, objective and logical analysis of political events, political contradiction and political history, in order to learn how to carry out effective social change, meaning Socialist Revolution here in the United States and worldwide!

    Michio Kaku and the So-Called “History Channel” Establishment
    Cover Up the Fact that Einstein’s First 3 Papers in 1905
    Were a Collaborative Effort With His Wife, Mileva Maric!

    It should be mentioned that Michio Kaku and several others in typical sexist fashion in a 2-hour report on Albert Einstein on the so-called “History Channel” covered up through lies of omission the irrefutable fact that Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric made substantial contributions to Einstein’s first 3 papers in 1905, his miracle year, and that her name was on all 3 papers which were first submitted according to the Russian scientist, Abraham Joffe, who saw the signatures of both Einstein and Mileva Einstein-Marity (Marity is a Serbian form of Maric) on the original copies of the those papers. Maric’s name was later removed from all the originals to hide her contributions in keeping with the sexism of that time when women could not even vote and were deemed to be mere chattels. Mileva Maric’s contributions are specifically mentioned in 13 of the 43 of Einstein’s love letters to Maric, those which were not destroyed. Thirteen of those letters contained statements which referred to her research or to their ongoing collaborative effort. The most likely reason for the destruction of the other letters was of course to hide the fact that those 3 historic 1905 papers were in fact a collaborative effort. See: http://home.comcast.net/~xtxinc/mileva.htm and http://itis.volta.alessandria.it/episteme/ep4/ep4maric.htm as well as a very determined and disparaging attack of Mileva Maric at: http://www.esterson.org/milevamaric.htm, which is nevertheless refuted by the actual facts.

    Later in 1914 when they moved to Berlin, and after Einstein had had his macho ego pumped up through the roof by Max Planck and others, Einstein actually tried to get Mileva to sign an onerous document, apparently a provocation designed to drive her away, which was rejected by Maric, which would have reduced her to a virtual slave in her own house! Kaku and the other “experts” of the establishment also cover up the fact that Einstein initially lacked the mathematics to formulate the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein had to be tutored in differential geometry for over a year by his longtime friend and colleague Marcel Grossman, who had attended the classes which Einstein had skipped, before he was able to formulate the mathematical proof of the General Theory of Relativity. The bottom line here is that Einstein was an intuitive astrophysicist, not an experimental astrophysicist and as such would undoubtedly have needed and benefited enormously from the relationship he had with his physicist wife, Mileva Maric, to confirm his ideas and to hear alternative points of view which the surviving letters from Einstein to Mileva indicate he incorporated into his first 3 papers from 1905. Einstein was not a god and had help all along the way.

    The Fact that Einstein’s Brain Was Structurally Different Helped
    But Was Not Determinative in his Contributions to Theoretical Physics!

    The 1985 study of Einstein’s brain by Marian C. Diamond (see below) revealed that Einstein had more glial cells relative to neurons only in the left inferior parietal area, Brodmann’s area 39, where the difference was statistically significant. The parietal lobes of the brain form the association area of the brain. In this area Einstein possessed a significantly greater number of both astrocytes and oligodendroglia (oligodendrocytes) glial cells. Glial cells provide support and nutrition to the neurons, the brain cells—the grey matter. The number of glial cells increases with age given a normal blood circulation and increases up the evolutionary ladder. Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells and fill the space between neurons by enveloping synaptic junctions in the brain, thereby restricting the amount of neurotransmitter molecules which have been released. Astrocytes have special proteins in their membranes which actively remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. In addition, Astrocytes also possess neurotransmitter receptors just like nerve cells, which allow them to most efficiently coordinate their metabolism with the neurons. Astrocytes also absorb extra-cellular potassium ions which build up as the result of neuronal metabolism, as well as absorbing other substances which can interfere with nerve cell function. They cushion the brain and permit a more complex brain structure as their numbers increase. Oligodendroglia cells, like Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, form myelin layers around the neuronal axons (fibers) which insulates the neuronal axons in the brain, and thereby participate in neuronal signal transmission. Larger numbers of glial cells supply more energy for neural circuits. Microglia, which function as phagocytes to remove the debris of dead or degenerating nerve cells and glial cells, were not included in the study. Supposed criticism of Diamond’s study, namely that Diamond and a colleague had previously discovered that a rat in an enriched environment developed more glial cells in each neuron than its counterpart in an impoverished area is totally irrelevant to her findings in Einstein’s brain.

    Einstein’s Association Area Was 15% Larger Than Normal

    The left inferior parietal cortex is part of the association area which was 15% larger in Einstein’ brain due to the fact that Einstein’s brain lacked a complete Sylvian (lateral) fissure, which in Einstein’s brain did not extend posteriorly past the horizontal Central Sulcus of Rolando, which in all brains separates the frontal cortex from the parietal association area. Normal extension of the Sylvian fissure posterior to this point separates the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. The lack of the Sylvian fissure in Einstein’s brain significantly expanded his parietal association area, while decreasing the size of the temporal lobe involved with speech: Einstein did not speak until he was 3 years old and had difficulty forming sentences. (The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement.)

    The glial study was performed by Marian C. Diamond at the University of California (Experimental Neurology, Vol. 88, pages 198-204 (1985). The gross study of Einstein’s brain was only published in 1999 (!) in the Lancet, Volume 353, Issue 9170, Pages 2149 – 2153, 19 June 1999. In addition, this citation and all the authors: Sandra F. Witelson, Debra L. Kigar and Thomas Harvey are censored by Medline, Pub Med, etc. This article is not listed under any of the authors of the study and Internet search engines deliberately misdirect people to a letter in the Lancet which appeared only many months later: The Lancet, Volume 354, Issue 9192, Page 1822, 20 November 1999. The reason that these studies were published so long after Einstein’s death in 1955 was because his brain was so completely different in appearance and structure lacking the posterior extension of the Sylvian fissure. This finding had NEVER ever been reported previously in all the annals of anatomical literature. Because of the fact that it was only 10 years after the end of World War II when Einstein died it was feared that release of the autopsy findings of Einstein’s brain at that time would provide a further basis for anti-Semitism, with the cry going out that “Jews are not like other humans! They are aliens! Look at Einstein’s brain! It’s not the same as other people!” While it is true that Einstein may have had an advantage by his brain anatomy both at the histological and gross levels, it is very unlikely that he would have made his contributions without the input of Mileva Maric his fellow-astrophysicist wife and his friend Marcel Grossman as documented above.

    The Gutkind Letter Documents that Einstein was an Atheist!
    Einstein’s Response to Strong Criticism by Soviet Scientists
    Documents that by May 1949 Einstein was a Communist!

    Einstein revealed very clearly and in no uncertain terms he was an atheist in his January 3, 1954 letter to Eric Gutkind, the Jewish philosopher, who had sent him a copy of his book Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt. The letter was sold for $404,000 at auction on May 15, 2008 by Bloomsbury Auctions in London and the relevant text was published in the British Guardian on May 13, 2008, and also in the New York Times on May 17, 2008. The published section states:

    … The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. These subtilised interpretations are highly manifold according to their nature and have almost nothing to do with the original text. For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are also no better than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything ‘chosen’ about them.
    In general I find it painful that you claim a privileged position and try to defend it by two walls of pride, an external one as a man and an internal one as a Jew. As a man you claim, so to speak, a dispensation from causality otherwise accepted, as a Jew the privilege of monotheism. But a limited causality is no longer a causality at all, as our wonderful Spinoza recognized with all incision, probably as the first one. And the animistic interpretations of the religions of nature are in principle not annulled by monopolization. With such walls we can only attain a certain self-deception, but our moral efforts are not furthered by them. On the contrary.
    Now that I have quite openly stated our differences in intellectual convictions it is still clear to me that we are quite close to each other in essential things, i.e. in our evalutations [sic] of human behaviour. What separates us are only intellectual ‘props’ and ‘rationalization’ in Freud’s language. Therefore I think that we would understand each other quite well if we talked about concrete things.
    With friendly thanks and best wishes
    Yours, A. Einstein.

    Many attempts have been made to falsely portray Einstein as someone who believed in god. The capitalist dictatorship media propagandists, and most recently especially the discredited professional liar Dennis Overbye, have been foremost in this effort. Even in the above-mentioned article in the New York Times Overbye tried to falsely attribute a belief by Einstein in “a personal god,” falsely stating that Einstein had said that he was “an agnostic” and “not an atheist.” This is entirely false! Einstein made no such statements and also never made the statement falsely attributed to him: “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.” While Einstein’s did remark that “God does not play dice with the Universe” in response to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, formulated by Heisenberg in March 1926, Einstein undoubtedly made that remark while his ideas on religion were still in formation. Einstein developed into an atheist and a Communist (Materialist). This is fully documented by Einstein’s own writings. See below!

    In response to Einstein’s attempt to develop a theory of “One world Government” using the United Nations as a basis, Soviet scientists, Seigei Vavilov, A.N. Frumkin, A.F. Joffe and N.N. Semyonov wrote an Open letter in the Moscow New Times, November 26, 1947, criticizing “Dr. Einstein’s Mistaken Notions,” where they clearly explained that such a “one world government” would be simply a means by which all countries would submit to U.S. capitalist dictatorship. Einstein reacted to the very solid criticism by immediately writing a rejoinder to his Soviet colleagues entitled “A Reply to the Soviet Scientists” published in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, February 1948, where he lamely tried to defend his ideas and the United States. But by May 1949 Einstein had clearly done some re-thinking and completely reversed course! Einstein wrote: “Why Socialism” published in the Monthly Review, New York, (May, 1949) where he solidly backed Socialism and the Russian Revolution! Einstein finally showed that he understood that capitalism cannot be turned into Socialism and that a Socialist Revolution is necessary to create the change he envisioned. “Why Socialism” demonstrated that Einstein had begun to read Karl Marx, but unfortunately not Friedrich Engels’ Socialism: Utopian and Scientific or the works of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin), the architect and leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution, whose writings in The State and Revolution supplied most but not all of the answers to the practical questions Einstein raises at the end of the essay with regard to the Soviet Union: namely the problem of the bureaucracy. (See below for a brief explanation of this crucial problem and Analysis and Theses by this writer, of which this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics is only a small section, for a thorough consideration of the problems raised by Einstein and others.) No wonder Einstein was spied upon by J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI and no wonder Einstein was not permitted access to the Manhattan Project where the atomic bomb was developed, a project which he and Leo Szilard initiated with their August 2, 1939 letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt recommending the building of an atomic bomb before the NAZIs did. All of the above-mentioned documents except the Einstein/Szilard letter are available in “Albert Einstein: Out of My Later Years” Revised Reprint Edition, Citadel Press, Secaucus, New Jersey 1956 and 1979.

    The Question of the Soviet Bureaucracy under “Socialism” or “Communism.”

    Einstein and all people want to know how to achieve a planned global economy based on human need not private profit. How do we limit or even abolish the bureaucracy? We first have to examine the real World View: Today we live in a world of nation states. All nation states are dictatorships of one class over another class, either the capitalist class over the working class or vice versa. (These are the only historically destined classes.) There is no “democracy” at the present time, not even for the capitalists. Capitalism has a dynamic of its own independent of the wills of the actual capitalists and capitalist politicians. (See above.) Communism is a stateless society, which has never been practiced and can never be practiced until capitalism is abolished worldwide beginning with a Socialist Revolution in its center—the United States. Within the framework of the class dictatorship there can either be a hard or a soft dictatorship. The hard dictatorship of capitalism is known as Fascism, which has several historical variants. Today the United States is a military, bureaucratic police state, known as Rule by Decree (a form of Bonapartism), a step short from Fascism, which requires the organized support of the petit-bourgeoisie (the middle class), the organization of armed gangs with specifically targeted scapegoats. The U.S. leaders are Fascists because they continually work to support the hardening capitalist dictatorship.

    All Workers’ States are hard dictatorships in order to prevent internal and external attempts to restore capitalism. Stalin was not actually a Communist by practice. After being made General Secretary Stalin murdered Lenin by poisoning him (see detailed article by Soviet Academician Yegor Yakovlev in Moscow News, No 4 (3356), January 29-February 5, 1989), and murdered virtually all the living leaders of the Russian Revolution with the exception of Lenin’s wife whom he controlled. Thereafter Stalin rode the back of the Socialist Revolution and drew all his power from it and was compelled to defend it, but only to the extent necessary to keep himself in power. The class dictatorship which existed in the USSR was partly necessary in a world where world capitalism was waging a continuous war against it, and arose because of that existing global class war, but the dictatorship in the USSR was obviously unnecessarily overdone by Joseph Stalin and his political descendants. Even Lenin in his writings did not consider the reality that capitalism must be overthrown in its center, the United States before actual Socialism and Communism can be achieved. In The State and Revolution Lenin describes how the bureaucracy is eliminated by direct election and immediate recall. But capitalism must be overthrown at its center before that is possible. At the point of overthrow of the capitalist dictatorship and the expropriation of all of their stolen wealth (the wealth of goods and services created by the Working Class) true democracy will finally exist. There will be no basis for the continued existence of the state which will begin to wither away, as explained in detail by Friedrich Engels in Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. Today that point is potentially closer than ever before despite the present widespread demoralization and brainwashing of the masses under capitalism. Please see previous analyses of this writer for the detailed explanation of the 1988 Soviet Surrender to the Threat of a Nuclear War (There was no “Collapse of the USSR!”) and how the Socialist Revolution should be organized and carried out in the United States. Capitalism offers a world with no future and now threatens the existence of all life on Earth.

    The Scientific Basis of Atheism:
    The Origin of Matter is an Unknowable!

    The capitalist dictatorship would have the masses believe that there is no limit on humankind’s knowledge, that everything is knowable and that everything was created by “god.” But that is false; there is a limit on knowledge and there is no god. Because of the fact that we exist as part of the Universe we can not exit the Universe, stand outside it and declare that a god, much larger than we are naturally but of course in our own image, who naturally is usually white and always male, never female, created the Universe. The corollary is that the origin of matter is an unknowable! The false claim of supposed “wormholes” by the string theorists of course is a way to try to condition peoples’ minds to believe that they can do the opposite and exit the Universe, and is designed to set up the belief patterns for belief in god! (And while you’re at it, after you have exited the Universe don’t forget to check out “god,” he’s right over there. Right near that wormhole you just crawled out of, Michio Kaku!) Modern science has answered virtually all questions except one: the origin of matter. This is an unknowable. What is knowable is the cyclic nature of the Universe and the evolution of life, which is inevitable given basic necessary conditions. See below. Today religion and “god” continue to be invoked by the capitalist dictatorship to explain both the origin of life, matter and the existence of the Universe, rather than simply agreeing that certain things are unknowable. The reason is that the capitalist dictatorship uses religion to help control the masses as explained above.

    The original basis for belief in god (multiple gods initially) and religion was due to humankind’s inability to explain natural events and life itself. Primitive society had to have an explanation for what could not yet be explained scientifically. The philosophy of antiquity was primitive, spontaneously evolved materialism (Engels), which found its expression in polytheism where various gods were invented in the minds of primitive peoples, which were thought to control different areas of life: There was a sun god, a moon god, a weather god(s) thought to control rain, thunder and lightning, a god for earthquakes, a god of the seas, a god for day, a god for night and in some societies a god to control almost every aspect of life. Polytheism however was incapable of clearing up the relation between mind and matter. As Engels explains: “the need to get clarity on this question led to the doctrine of a soul separable from the body, then to the assertion of the immortality of this soul, and finally to monotheism.” As humankind’s thought gradually advanced and natural events acquired scientific explanations, polytheism gave way to monotheism. The old materialism was therefore negated by idealism. But in the course of the further development of philosophy, idealism, too, has become untenable in a practical sense and has been negated by modern Dialectical and Historical Materialism, presently tightly suppressed by the capitalist dictatorship.

    Prior to the development of modern materialism, which serves as the basis for this analysis, and existing simultaneously with its development, organized religion formed pacts with the existing power structures, pacts which have spanned the entire sequence of civilization from the primitive slave societies of Egypt, Greece and Rome to the feudalism-based monarchies of Europe to today’s rapidly hardening war-based capitalist dictatorship. When the French Monarchy and the nobility were overthrown in the French Revolution the Catholic Church was first rejected as a competing center of power but then embraced as indispensable by the bourgeoisie, which emerged victorious under Napoleon Bonaparte when it became clear that the peasantry, which had carried out the revolution could not organize or wield power. The bourgeoisie quickly realized that religion was necessary to control the masses as under the Monarchy and signed the Concordat of 1801 that reestablished the Catholic Church in France but with reduced influence. This has continued into the modern day where the capitalist dictatorship uses the belief in god and religion to blunt the thrust for revolutionary change as explained above. NAZI Germany also signed the Reichskonkordat in 1933 with the Catholic Church and similar agreements with the protestant churches in Germany, which were an important step in international acceptance of the NAZIs. Today the capitalists work overtime to keep alive the belief in a “supreme being,” taking advantage of man’s arrogance and insistence to be able to explain everything. As mentioned above humankind cannot exit the Universe and is limited in this way.

    In the same way the origin of matter is also thus unknowable. The scientific basis of atheism includes but is not limited to the knowledge of the Special Theory of Relativity, The General Theory of Relativity, The Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe, the origin of life through the Primordial Soup Theory of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey and Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Through Natural Selection. This scientific basis of life and the Universe does not hold a place for a god. The capitalists’ propagandists try to keep the false idea of a god alive by claiming that science and religion are not incompatible. But they are entirely incompatible! There is no scientific basis for belief in a god and the religious Fascists know it very well. That is why they wage a continuous never-ending and ever-escalating battle against science in the classroom. The capitalists also front large organizations such as the John Templeton Foundation and the Stanford Templeton Research Institute for Nature, God and Science (STRINGS!) to try to reconcile religion and belief in god. The capitalist dictatorship has recently decided to push the theme of false unity of science and religion and belief in a god even more systematically with a TV series called “Closer to Truth: Cosmos. Consciousness. God,” which appears on the CUNY Channel, where they push the same disproved and discredited falsehoods already cited above such as “string theory,” “dark matter,” “dark energy,” “time travel” and “worm holes.” Good grief! Don’t be fooled for a second! This is simply creationism/intelligent design in disguise. It should be noted that the recent May 20, 2010 reported findings regarding the relationship of the 1% predominance of matter over anti-matter do not interfere in any way with this analysis or the Standard Model of Particle Physics.

    As an example of the escalation of the attack on science and materialism by religion and reaction, the Obama Regime has appointed a Jesus Freak, a well-known evangelist/sophisticated creationism propagandist and vehement anti-materialist, Francis Collins, as the new head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which directs funding of the majority of medical/scientific research in the United States. Though he strongly denies it Francis Collins, who is a scientist, is also a CREATIONIST, who professes the most sophisticated form of INTELLIGENT DESIGN where he attributes all scientific laws and findings no matter how complex to god! (This is another example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, which in this case is weighted toward reaction.) Note that the courts have already decided the obvious, that “intelligent design” is simply a form of creationism in a highly publicized case: Kitmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707, M.D. Pa. 2005. Collins is also the author of “The Language of God,” which absurdly claims the Big Bang and evolution were created by god (!) and states: “science offers no answers to the most pressing questions of human existence.” (!) This is a very Big Lie! Officially the Director of the NIH supposedly has very little power with decisions about how to spend the $30 billion annual budget being made by a committee of scientists or by the 27 directors of the individual institutes and centers, but Collins was chosen BECAUSE of his religious beliefs not in spite of them in order to provide him a bully pulpit for his beliefs. NIH funding is ALREADY highly politicized with the most worthwhile projects routinely rejected while the most ridiculous projects receive full funding! And contrary to Collins’ claim, human illness and disease DO constitute “one of the most pressing questions of human existence.” Because of his religious orientation the capitalist dictatorship previously appointed Collins head of the Human Genome Project. Although his ideology did not prevent him from doing his job there, where there were NOT so many different funding choices as at the NIH (where they are also much harder to follow), his high position and bully pulpit so to speak puts him in the position of Hoodwinking Chief Advocate for his sophisticated form of creationism/intelligent design! The Pope of the NIH!

    Note that Collins has also written: “the claims of atheistic materialism must be steadfastly resisted.” But Collins provides no reason whatsoever why such materialist claims must be resisted. And even if the arguments for his claim were as plentiful as blackberries, Herr Collins would give us none of them. Collins presumably rejects all that is written above and herein because it exposes his superstitious ideology as a fraud! Collins also denies that the origin of matter is an unknowable, which it is. See above. Collins thus implies that HE can exit the Universe and see “god” and that “god” created the Universe when he states: “God stands outside of nature.” (!) How would he know? Collins appointment is one more example of the one-way dynamic of capitalism-imperialism. Never before has a creationism-propagandist, disguised or open, been appointed as head of NIH or to the Human Genome Project! The appointment of Collins represents an increase in reaction, an escalation in the capitalist dictatorships’ use of religion to befuddle the masses and emphasizes how important religion and superstition are to capitalist statecraft in order to keep the masses confused and brainwashed and further demonstrates the necessity for a Socialist Revolution in the United States!

    Religious superstition can play no constructive role in either genuinely progressive thought or the process of organizing a Socialist Revolution in the United States. On the other hand the Socialist Revolution, while it does not support religion, permits no crushing of any religion nor does it not pit one religion against another as the capitalists do routinely as part of their strategy of divide and conquer, nor does it permit manipulating a religion to form the basis for the so-called “War on Terror,” the pretext used to keep capitalism in its Final Stage of Permanent War and State Terrorism. This is what the capitalists have done in Iraq and elsewhere as part of their strategy of divide and conquer. The future of religion will be determined by an open long-term debate over time in a revolutionary evolving society and the strength of scientific evidence in addition to the polemics carried out by proponents of all religions as well as the proponents of atheism and Dialectical and Historical Materialism.

    NOTE: the following paragraphs precede the above paragraphs in the entire piece about Global Warming and are in the proper order as they appear in the Analysis and Theses.

    The Runaway Greenhouse Effect has already occurred on Venus where all the CO2 is found in the 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Centigrade) atmosphere. The water in the oceans of Venus, which were nearly the size of the oceans on Earth, all evaporated away very early because of the heat generated by the Runaway Greenhouse Effect caused by the fact that Venus receives 30% more sunlight than the Earth. The evaporating oceans finally boiled away completely after the temperature reached the temperature of the Venusian boiling point of water, the equivalent on Earth of a measly 212 degrees Fahrenheit—on its way to the present 932 degrees Fahrenheit! Once in the upper atmosphere ultraviolet radiation from the sun split the H20 apart into hydrogen, which disappeared into space and oxygen, which reacted with minerals on the surface and also disappeared from the atmosphere. The Evolution of Life is what prevented a Runaway Greenhouse Effect from occurring on Earth as it did on Venus! Life did not evolve on Venus because of the heat, with the consequence that there was no plant and animal life to absorb the gradual build-up of CO2 from volcanoes, the source of all carbon, which eventually formed the thick atmosphere which exists on Venus today composed primarily of CO2 (96.5%) with the remainder nitrogen (3.5%) and other minor components expressed in a few parts per million, such as argon 70 ppm, carbon monoxide 17 ppm, helium 12 ppm, neon 7 ppm, plus a sulfuric acid cloud deck (sulfur dioxide—150 ppm) beginning at about 50 kilometers above the surface. In addition, there are only 20 parts per million of water vapor remaining from the huge oceans which once existed on Venus. On Earth the CO2 which was released into the atmosphere through volcanoes went into evolving vegetation and then animal life, which over hundreds of millions of years became deposited in the crust of the Earth as the fossil fuels coal and oil. There is no carbon found in the crust of Venus. That is how we know that life did not evolve on Venus! Today the frenzied burning of those fossil fuels here on Earth has resulted in having the huge amount of CO2 stored in them being released all at once into the atmosphere. The Earth’s carbon sinks, the Earth’s natural storage mechanisms for CO2—the rain forests other vegetation and the oceans—have a limit and are now being overwhelmed. As occurred on Venus billions of years ago, that process now appears to have reached the stage of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect here on Earth. Without a Socialist Revolution here in the United States, which is the only possible way to still reverse that process, the situation on Venus today will be the future of the Earth in the not so distant future. We are presently experiencing the beginning of that future. Life on Earth will become totally unlivable far before we arrive at the situation existing on Venus today.

    The temperature on Earth does not have to rise very much to destroy all life. This is the reality which fake “opposition” figures such as James Hansen and Al Gore and Steven Chu deliberately hide, while they attempt to control the issue and lead it to defeat. (See below.) As described elsewhere in the analysis of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect this process involves multiple positive feedbacks or vicious circles. The arctic sea ice normally reflects heat and light from the sun back into space, but this effect decreases as the ice is replaced by the darker sea water when the ice melts, which in turn absorbs more heat from the sunlight. This is known as the ice-albedo feedback or the ice-reflectivity feedback and is the most important feedback in the polar region. It was reported on NBC Evening News on May 13, 2009 that the polar ice may all be gone within 5 years. Because the North and South Poles act as thermostats for the planet the removal of that thermostat may result in an abrupt increase in global warming making life much more difficult and increasing the melting of the land ice on Greenland, raising the sea level much more rapidly.

    In the 1951 science fiction/political film, The Day The Earth Stood Still, the Earth was visited by people in a flying saucer from a more advanced civilization which delivered an ultimatum at the end: “It is no concern of ours how you run your own planet, but if you threaten to extend your violence, this Earth of yours will be reduced to a burned out cinder. Your choice is simple: join us and live in peace, or pursue your present course and face obliteration. We shall be waiting for your answer. The decision rests with you.” The result of Earth being reduced to a burned out cinder is clearly not limited to war and peace or even nuclear war. Although it goes without saying that capitalism-imperialism, due to its internal dynamic as explained herein, automatically extends violence everywhere and even to outer space with its Star Wars Program, etc. (which has thankfully not yet been realized in practice), capitalism has also extended its maximum violence to the environment. The environmental reality, not science fiction, is that with the onset of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect the Earth is now on course to become a burned out cinder like Venus! Only a Socialist Revolution can avert this catastrophe! It is our right and it is our duty, according to The Declaration of Independence, to avert this catastrophe by ending the capitalist dictatorship in the United States through a Socialist Revolution.

    The falsely labeled “Archaea” bacteria, tube worms, which have evolved to live at temperatures of up to 110 degrees Fahrenheit, and the hyperthermophilic bacteria, which have evolved to live at water temperatures of up to 239 degrees Fahrenheit will be the last life on Earth because of their ability to live at high temperatures.. (Incidentally, “Archaea” was falsely so-labeled in order to spread confusion in science and to try to undermine in one blow both Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and the irrefutable Primordial Soup Theory of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey of 1953, who demonstrated that the basic building blocks of life; amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and carboxylic acids can all be produced by running electrical sparks simulating lightning through the most-likely original reducing atmosphere of Earth composed of methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water vapor or steam. Later experiments by Miller demonstrated that the precise atmospheric mixture was not as important as the fact that it be a reducing atmosphere, meaning that it must contain NO oxygen, because the compounds necessary for life, namely amino acids, purines and pyrimidines (required for the synthesis nucleotides required to form RNA and DNA) and carboxylic acids (required for the synthesis of lipids) cannot be produced in an oxidizing atmosphere! In addition, it has been reported that Jeffrey L. Bada, who had been a graduate student of Stanley Miller and Adam P. Johnson a graduate student at Indiana University visiting Bada’s laboratory on an internship, working with co-workers, have discovered 22 amino acids in the original samples from the Stanley Miller-Urey experiments, including 10 that had not been previously reported. (The Miller Volcanic Spark Discharge Experiment, Adam P. Johnson, Daniel P. Glavin, Antonio Lazcano and Jeffrey L. Bada, Science, 17, October 2008. page 404, Vol. 322, no. 5900, DOI: 10.1126 science. 1161527). See also The New York Times, October 17, 2008. In a 1996 interview Stanley Miller also revealed that he had been able to produce pyridines and purines by creating more concentrated pre-biotic “dry beach” conditions, which would have been present in lakes lagoons and beaches on the primitive Earth. From that point everything is very clear.

    Natural Origin of Nucleotides Finally Solved

    As reported in the Nature Vol. 459 pp.239-242, May14, 2009 by Sutherland JD et al, the actual formation of ribosenucleotides proceeds from constituent parts of arabinose amino-oxazoline and anhydronucleoside intermediates rather than from free ribose and nucleobases, thus finally solving the problem of the natural origin of nucleotides. The starting materials for the synthesis were cyanamide, cyanoacetylene, glycoaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and inorganic phosphate, all of which are plausible prebiotic feestock molecules and the conditions of the synthesis were consistent with potential early-Earth geochemical models as made clear in the study. Although inorganic phosphate is only incorporated into the nucleotides at a later stage of the sythesis, its presence from the start is essential as it controls 3 reactions in the earlier stages by acting as a general acid/base catalyst, a nucleophilic catalyst, a pH buffer and a chemical buffer, according to the study! In addition, because these reactions take place at moderate temperatures this study by Sutherland et al. supports the Primordial Soup theory of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey first proposed by Thomas Darwin himself, who in his 1871 letter to the botanist Joseph Hooker stated that he believed that life evolved “in some little warm pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts.” (!) Urey and Miller indubitably read this letter which motivated their work described above, which is ruthlessly ridiculed by the NASA fakers and their supporters and is not even mentioned by Nicholas Wade in the New York Times, May 14, 2008 reference article! Self-replicating RNA molecules are well known today and have been extensively studied and described in the major media and peer review journals. And DNA clearly evolved from RNA. There is no credible dispute. Problem solved.

    In 1969 a carbonaceous meteorite fell in Murchison Australia which had a high concentrations of amino acids, about 100 ppm, found in the same pre-biotic experiments of Stanley Miller, proving that the early evolution of life is a constant which occurs throughout the universe given certain favorable conditions, NOT that life came to Earth from comets or asteroids from elsewhere—the so-called “Theory of Panspermia,” which is also fraudulently being passed off as a “theory of life.” Cosmic rays and the heat of entry into Earth’s atmosphere would have destroyed all life potentially surviving the near absolute zero temperature of interstellar or interplanetary space. The goal of these determined and deliberate falsifiers is to keep the masses confused on as many scientific matters and political matters as possible. Because a confused person cannot act! False analysis of one issue leads in turn to false analysis of another. In such a situation the masses are much more likely to think what they are told to think and to do what they are told to do by the capitalist dictatorship. Since 1969 incidentally numerous carbonaceous meteorites have revealed the presence of amino acids. LIFE ALSO DID NOT EVOLVE AT SUBMARINE VENTS! Among the more recent false claims of evolution of life is the truly ridiculous claim that life supposedly “evolved at submarine vents” formed under the oceans where tectonic plates meet, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. But it is a fact that submarine vents don’t make organic compounds, they decompose them! These vents are one of the limiting factors on what organic compounds would exist in the primitive oceans. At the present time, the entire ocean goes through those vents in 10 million years. So all of the organic compounds are destroyed every ten million years. That places a constraint on how much organic material could accumulate. In addition, it also provides a time scale for the origin of life. If all the polymers and other compounds that evolve are continuously destroyed that means life would have to start early and evolve rapidly.

    Looking at the process in detail, it is clear that long periods of time would be detrimental, rather than helpful to this fraudulent, totally contrived and deliberately misleading so-called “theory” of the origin of life which was created, among other reactionary reasons (see below), in order to provide a false pretext for NASA to carry out extremely costly and entirely unnecessary and useless space ventures using the primitive form of space travel, rocketry, to outlying planetary satellites under the false pretext of “searching for life,” wherever there might be water (!) discovered by spectral analysis for example, in order to keep their jobs and obtain continued government funding and to serve as yet one more pretext to divert money from social spending. The most recent ridiculous “projects’ in this series are the Obama plans to revisit the Moon to build a moon base and take a trip to Mars and trying to privatize—just l

  13. Willliam H. Depperman says:

    Part 3

    Looking at the process in detail, it is clear that long periods of time would be detrimental, rather than helpful to this fraudulent, totally contrived and deliberately misleading so-called “theory” of the origin of life which was created, among other reactionary reasons (see below), in order to provide a false pretext for NASA to carry out extremely costly and entirely unnecessary and useless space ventures using the primitive form of space travel, rocketry, to outlying planetary satellites under the false pretext of “searching for life,” wherever there might be water (!) discovered by spectral analysis for example, in order to keep their jobs and obtain continued government funding and to serve as yet one more pretext to divert money from social spending. The most recent ridiculous “projects’ in this series are the Obama plans to revisit the Moon to build a moon base and take a trip to Mars and trying to privatize—just like Bush—what should properly be part of the existing government, even after a Socialist Revolution in the United States! Privatization of government agencies reflects both the one-way dynamic of capitalism and its true inherent anarchy. Instead there should be a concerted attempt to develop (or back-engineer) the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by the UFO’s. This requires nuclear power and a structural material which is super-conducting at room temperature. That material exists and is known as the nanotube form of carbon, the hardest known material ever discovered, far harder than diamonds. But it is highly likely that there is too much money invested in rocketry the most primitive form of space travel, which is also backed by the oil industry. This is further proof of the almost entirely one-way dynamic of capitalism leading to Fascism, barbarism and finally the end of civilization; and now with the advent of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect, the end of all life on Earth. We need a Socialist Revolution here in the United States. In the final analysis all wars are won and lost on morale and every movement begins with the call. This analysis is part of that call.

    William H. Depperman, Coordinator
    United Front Against Racism
    And Capitalism-Imperialism
    New York, N.Y.
    Revised May 21, 2010

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