Scientist Discovered Structure Of Protein In Common HIV Subgroups:News

Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have provided the first-ever glimpse of the structure of a key protein—gp120—found on the surface of a specific subgroup of the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1. In addition, they demonstrated that a particular antibody to gp120 makes contact not only with the protein, but with the CD4 receptor that gp120 uses to gain entrance into the body’s T cells.

This three-dimensional understanding of how gp120 is built is more than just a basic scientific advance. “There’s a tremendous continuing effort to develop a vaccine for HIV,” says Caltech postdoctoral scholar Ron Diskin, “and most of those efforts use gp120. Having more structural information will facilitate better vaccine design.”

The findings are detailed in a paper published in the advance online edition of the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

This image of the complex studied by the Caltech team shows gp120 in gray, CD4 in green, the 21c antibody’s light chain in yellow, and its heavy chain in magenta.
[Credit: Caltech/Ron Diskin]

The team looked specifically at gp120 from what is known as clade C HIV-1. To explain what that means, here’s a brief HIV family history: Most people who get HIV and proceed to AIDS are infected with a member of the HIV-1 family of viruses. HIV-1 is divided into groups; most AIDS-related strains of the virus come from group M. The groups are further subdivided into what are known as clades.

Clade B is the form of group M HIV-1 most often found in the United States and western Europe, and the one that is probably best-studied to date. Clade C, the clade studied by the Caltech team, is “the one that is devastating Africa and Asia,” says Diskin. “It’s the one that probably causes the largest number of infections worldwide.”

Previous studies had looked at the structure of clade B gp120, and it had been assumed—but not proven—that clade C’s version would look much the same.

In order to uncover the structure of clade C gp120—and determine if the hypothesis about its similarities was indeed true—the Caltech team needed to crystallize the protein. That was no easy task. Turns out, says Diskin, the protein itself is not stiff enough for crystallization. And so the researchers created a complex of molecules consisting of a gp120 monomer, a CD4 receptor, and an anti-HIV antibody known as 21c.

This configuration facilitated crystallization, and allowed the scientists to look not only at gp120—which, indeed, “looks pretty much the same in clade C as in clade B,” says Diskin—but to visualize the entire binding site and to see how the various components in the complex interact with one another.

That was when they noticed something unusual: Antibody 21c was not only reacting to—and thus making contact with—the gp120 protein sticking out from HIV’s envelope, but also was reacting to the CD4 receptors on the body’s own T cells. It is the first time this sort of polyreactivity—a response to more than one antigen—had been visualized in the 3-D structure of an HIV-targeting antibody.

“The most interesting aspect of our structure is the unexpected contact between the antibody and CD4,” says Pamela Bjorkman, the Max Delbruck Professor of Biology at Caltech, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and the Caltech team’s leader. “The binding to CD4 suggests that this class of anti-HIV antibodies has autoreactive properties, which raises many interesting questions about how anti-HIV immune responses affect an HIV-infected individual.”

Does this autoreactivity mean that 21c is too dangerous to work with, because clinicians might be courting a potential autoimmune response with a vaccine that elicits 21c-like antibodies?

Not necessarily, says Diskin.

“Other data out there show that some of the best neutralizing antibodies are also autoreactive,” he explains.

What it does mean, however, is that there would be additional hurdles to overcome in eliciting such antibody responses, Diskin says. The body tends to eliminate autoreactive antibodies, in an attempt to keep autoimmune diseases at bay. “In order to create a good vaccine to produce 21c-like antibodies, researchers will have to overcome this elimination mechanism.”

The next step for the Caltech team is to try to improve on the relatively low-resolution structure worked out in the current paper. In addition, Diskin says, the team would like to try to resolve the structure of a gp120 trimer—a more complex, three-pronged version of the protein.

In addition to Bjorkman and Diskin, the other coauthor on the paper, “Structure of a clade C HIV gp120 bound to CD4 and CD4-induced antibody reveals anti-CD4 polyreactivity,” is Paola Marcovecchio, a Caltech research technician. Their work was made possible by a fellowship from the European Molecular Biology Organization, a Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery grant (supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), and support from Caltech’s Molecular Observatory (funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation).

[ref:Caltech]

About bruceleeeowe
An engineering student and independent researcher. I'm researching and studying quantum physics(field theories). Also searching for alien life.

11 Responses to Scientist Discovered Structure Of Protein In Common HIV Subgroups:News

  1. Pingback: New England Saltwater Fish | Fishing Tackle

  2. Pingback: The immune response to the intramuscular influenza vaccine initially develops in the spleen? | Immune System Vitamin

  3. Pingback: Scientist Discovered Structure Of Protein In Common HIV Subgroups … University Intro

  4. Apostle Shada Mishe says:

    Ambush

    My name is Simon and I am a 29 year old male. I first discovered that I was HIV Positive in June of 2009. Three weeks earlier I had gone to a local health center for testing and I was negative. The following week I applied for life insurance and was denied because my test results came back positive. When I received my results, for some reason I was calm. Instead of searching for treatments, I immediately went online to search for the cure – that’s when I ran across the youtube.com presentation of Apostle Shada Mishe. I immediately e-mailed him and he asked me some very basic information: my name, viral load, and age. When I e-mailed him this information, he invited me to come to his home in Toronto to get some Ambush. Ambush was the cure that the Apostle was presenting on youtube.com. The Apostle said that Ambush kills HIV/AIDS completely in 21 days. I didn’t have a passport at the time, and I live in the U.S., so the Apostle gave me an open invitation and told me to contact him when I was ready to come.

    I traveled to see the Apostle on the 4th of July. Before I left, I sent him a final e-mail asking him if I needed to bring anything and he replied, “just you.” I arrived at the Apostle’s home very early in the morning, in fact, he was still asleep. Nevertheless, when he answered the door, he greeted me with a big hug and said, “hello my son.” He explained to me that he needed a little more time to finish making the Ambush, so I sat. He then bought in a pan of water and a towel and asked me to take off my socks, and then he washed my feet. He then anointed me from head to feet in oil, as he prayed with me. We sat for hours and talked about almost everything: the state of the world, religion, sex, family, goals, etc. He informed me that from that point on he was my father and there was nothing that I should feel I couldn’t tell him.

    Once the Ambush was ready, the Apostle bought some to me in a small glass. He took a sip first then told me to drink it. Surprisingly, it had a pleasant taste – like tea with ginger. He told me to drink it three times daily for the next three weeks. He packaged it in a bottle and gave it to me. Before I left his home, he told me to put my hands on this huge slab of marble. He put his hands on it too and then he prayed for me. I immediately felt a spirit of peace.

    For the next three weeks I took the recommended dosage of Ambush. The Apostle also told me to take a daily vitamin supplement with it. In the first week I felt no change. In the second week I felt very sluggish, nauseated and I noticed that my hair was thinning rapidly. I felt like I was going through chemotherapy. This was a direct contrast to how the Apostle told me I would feel. He said that I would have more energy, my skin would look better and I would feel healthier than I had in a long time. I never stopped taking the Ambush, but I communicated my concerns to the Apostle through e-mail. Each time I e-mailed him, he immediately responded, answering all of my questions and coddling my fears.

    I went and got blood work after I completed taking the Ambush. It took a few months for me to go back because I was scared. I knew what I had prayed for and what the Apostle had told me, but if this didn’t work, I would have to face the fact that I would die from AIDS. In early October, I got my test results back. My doctor informed me that he was expecting my viral load to be in the double digit thousands because I had recently contracted the disease, but it came back at 69! This was outstanding. I called the Apostle and we talked over the phone and rejoiced. He told me to come back to see him before I got tested again. I did. He gave me another three week supply of Ambush. On December 21, 2009 I was diagnosed as undetectable. That was the best Christmas present that I could have received.

    I am telling my story because there are millions of people infected with HIV/ AIDS. There is a cure! I paid nothing for Ambush and no one has paid me to write this story. This information is pure fact. My hope is that someone with the power to manufacture this cure will read this story, so that thousands of people will stop suffering and dying needlessly of this disease each year. There is hope and I have found it in Ambush and Apostle Shada Mishe.

    Article Submitted on January 1, 2010 by Simon T.

    THE CURE for HIV/AIDS…….AMBUSH

    THE IDEA that AMBUSH cures AIDS
    is being proven by the more than 400 individuals who have taken a dose of 60 ml three times daily for 21 days. The result is that AMBUSH ‘KILLS’ the virus by causing the protein envelope to rupture and the viral particles are discarded by the white blood cells. AMBUSH is able to ‘KILL’ the virus that are ‘hiding’ in the lymph system by its ‘natural radioactive’ properties. This process allows the body to ‘return to normal health’ with a corresponding immunity to that or those strains of the virus.

    What is AMBUSH ?
    AMBUSH is a radioactive isotope of uranium that is found in the ‘palm’ plant of which there are more than 3000 species. When ingested, AMBUSH causes the body temperature in the trunk area to rise to about 102 degrees when the individual is sleeping. The preparation takes four hours per batch, which is then given to the individuals for consumption 60 ml three times daily for 21 days. AMBUSH is a herbal preparation in this form but it contains an active ingredient which is a ‘NEW’ crystalline substance, a drug from the ‘palm plant’ similarly to ASPIRIN originating from the willow tree bark

    RESULTS:
    After 21 days on AMBUSH, ALL the individuals experienced a decrease in viral load to undetectable, an increase in cd4, increase in RBC, an improvement in general health such as more color to the face, decrease in Buffalo hump, an increase in gluteal muscles, a decrease to having no joint pains whereby individuals can bend to touch their toes, and walk up steps are but a few examples. There is also a dramatic increase in their sexual appetite beginning after the first week of therapy

    DISCUSSION:
    In any plant concoction such as percolated ‘tea’, there are 30-40,000 compounds, whi ch would take the scientific community twenty years to isolate one particular ingredient if they knew what they were looking for. The LORD GOD has given me seven steps to isolate the active ingredient, which is soft and metallic in nature and has a carbon- uranium-sulfur-(classified)-phentolamine configuration or structure. This is similar to Federick Kekule and the discovery of the benzene ring where he dreamt the structure.

    As an antiviral and ‘natural radioactivity’ producing agent, AMBUSH is also effective against leukemia, lupus and HPV. Here I am saying that I have ‘GIVEN’ AMBUSH in the same ‘strength’ and dosage to patients with leukemia, lupus and HPV. A 35 year old male with HIV found it difficult to impossible to urinate was put on ‘green tea’ and water while the doctors contemplated prostrate surgery. One of the doctors gave him my number , I sent him a supply of AMBUSH an d he has not been given any more ARV’s, since taking AMBUSH 18 months ago, is in ‘good’ health and has expressed a willingness to be examined by HIV investigators like many others who have taken AMBUSH.

    I have sent this ‘IDEA’ to most HIV research agencies, scientist of the field, universities, hospitals, clinics, politicians and news agencies to which it is REJECTED because the name of THE LORD GOD is mentioned. He has steered me scientifically through the processes such as which plant and how to produce the active ingredient. What are the odds of a Florida Pharmacist picking a plant would contain the CURE for HIV/AIDS ?
    I have never charged any of the people for their supply of AMBUSH but a life saving has been spent on the project with NO renumeration from any sources because AMBUSH falls outside the walls of modern medicine and research.

    PROPOSAL:

    My proposal is that I PROVE that AMBUSH CURES HIV/AIDS by giving it to a number of END-STAGE or DRUG-RESISTANT people and the scientific community watches their recovery. This proposal addresses the problem in that I have already outlaid the results to be obtained.

    This IDEA is unconventional in that the scientific community has rejected AMBUSH because I say it is GOD given. Secondly if I wrote it according to certain standards, then it might be peer reviewed. However, THE LORD GOD has also shown me that there are five enzyme systems associated with the virus, reverse transcriptase, protease, fusion and two more of which causes the virus to be AIRBOURNE. This means that without DIVINE intervention mankind and ALL warm- blooded mammals will be extinct in a number of years.

    The PROOF of what I am saying is found in scientific papers wherein it is found that when the protease cuts the viral strands, it cuts it at DIFFERENT lengths EVERY time, to which it should always be a valine at the end but is a different amino acid every time. This is why it is IMPOSSIBLE to produce a VACCINE.

    Since this is NOT a hypothesis but there are about 400 individuals who have taken AMBUSH, here lies a vast area in which to check, recheck and confirm that AMBUSH CURES AIDS. Let it be mentioned that during the HIV reproductive cycle, reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA into DNA compatible to human genetic materials. Thus the human DNA has been ‘hijacked’ and since each person has a DIFFERENT DNA, then the new viral copy is unique to that person which shows that each individual has a DIFFERENT STRAIN of the virus. Consider two HIV positive people swapping viral strains and increasing its complexity with multiple partners.
    It can also be proposed that they be revisited as proof that the strain or strains that they had were ‘killed’ at the time of taking AMBUSH considering that a person can catch as many different strains as there are people who are infected by HIV.
    I am also willing to work with the scientific community in identifying those individuals who took AMBUSH and wish to be identified with this process notwithstanding that some are stigmatized while others are jubilant,

    Once AMBUSH is verified as being able to accomplish that which is aforementioned then the next stage might be the natural and artificial synthesis of the substance.

    Finally, if this is accepted or not, believed or not, THE LORD GOD always wins and this is the heavenly truth to which AMBUSH was divinely given to mankind for the CURE of HIV/AIDS and it will be here forever. Apostle Shada Mishe.

    apostleshadamishe@gmail.com

    Here is a video taped presentation that I gave at t he Martin Luther King library in Washington







  5. QWMichael says:

    No. But now i will. Thanks for that.

  6. Morien says:

    Whoa…that’s fantastic. cure of HIV got discovered. Really incredible if it is true.

  7. All men pipedream, but not equally. Those who day-dream by edge of night in the dusty recesses of their minds, wake in the day to learn that it was bootlessness: but the dreamers of the hour are threatening men, for they may sketch on their dreams with problematic eyes, to cause them possible.

  8. All men dream, but not equally. Those who dream by edge of night in the dusty recesses of their minds, wake in the day to become aware of that it was bootlessness: but the dreamers of the epoch are rickety men, for they may act on their dreams with problematic eyes, to create them possible.

  9. bike helmet says:

    A gink begins sneering his insight teeth the earliest without surcease he bites off more than he can chew.

  10. To be a adroit charitable being is to have a philanthropic of openness to the in the seventh heaven, an gift to trusteeship aleatory things beyond your own manage, that can take you to be shattered in uncommonly exceptionally circumstances as which you were not to blame. That says something remarkably outstanding about the prerequisite of the ethical autobiography: that it is based on a conviction in the uncertain and on a willingness to be exposed; it’s based on being more like a weed than like a treasure, something fairly fragile, but whose mere precise beauty is inseparable from that fragility.

  11. Celexa says:

    Distress ferments the humors, casts them into their meet channels, throws substandard redundancies, and helps cosmos in those hush-hush distributions, without which the fuselage cannot subsist in its vigor, nor the man act with cheerfulness.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: